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File: 950901_23tr2149_170.txt
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	Introduction to toxic chemical agents

This document is a captured Iraqi military record.
It is provided in its original form to include Iraqi
classification markings (i.e. Top Secret, Secret, etc.). 
These classification markings are NOT U.S. Government markings.

Session to show officers methods to protect troops from chemical weapons:

For the period 8/4 until 8/10/1990 at the headquarters of 
the Chemical Company - Seventh Corps
Qorat Al-Golan * Gawaria

			Subject: 	Introduction to toxic chemical agents
					Important definitions

Toxic Chemical Agent: 	A solid, liquid, or gas chemical substance that causes by its 
chemical properties, losses (which affect the functions of the 

Concentration: 	A certain amount of a toxic chemical agent in a certain amount of 
air. It is measured in milligrams / liter (mg/liter) or milligram for each 
cubic meter (mg/ m3)

Contamination Degree: 	A certain amount of a toxic chemical agent on a certain 
surface of the ground or various places. It is measured in 
mg/cm2 or g/m2

Prevention: 	Troops� protection at an appropriate time from any sudden attack by the 
enemy with toxic chemical agents, biological agents, nuclear weapons, or 
[illegible] agents in order to prevent or reduce the effect of these weapons.

Decontamination: 	The process of removing any contamination or reducing it to the 
normal level. The detailed method is the one that occurs with the 
minimum effort and materials within a certain time frame that is 
determined by the mobilization position

Dose: 	The toxic amount of the chemical agent. It is the amount of the toxic chemical 
agent that causes certain physiological effects to the body, a severe 
illness, or leads to death. It takes effect when it enters the body.

Medium lethal dose through the respiratory system: 
It causes the death of 50% of the individuals or test animals for a certain period of time 
though the respiratory system. Its symbol is LST 50 and is measured in mg min/liter

Medium lethal dose through the digestive system, absorption or injection
It causes death to 50% of the individuals (test animals) through skin absorption or 
injection, or the digestive system. Its symbol is LD50 and is measured in mg/kg of the 
body�s weight.

Medium disabling dose through the respiratory system:
It is the dose that renders 50% of the individuals incapable of performing their activities 
through the respiratory system. It is measured in mg mn/liter

Medium disabling dose through the digestive system, absorption, or injection
It is the dose that renders 50% of the individuals incapable of performing their activities 
through the digestive system, absorption, or injection. It is measured in Mg/kg of the 
body�s weight.

Duration:	It is the period during which the toxic chemical agent retains its toxic 
properties. It depend on physiological aspects of the agent, weather 
conditions, surface of the ground, and method of use.

Characteristics of the toxic chemical agents:

1- They affect health. They do not contaminate a wide surface of the ground but 
contaminate a large amount of air which moves with the wind to reach long distances.

2- They affects living beings only.

3- They can cause losses to persons who are living in unconditioned residences or 

4- Their toxic effect lingers for a long period which depends on the type of the agent 
used, ground, and weather conditions (temperature, air)

5- They need special protective measures.

6-They greatly affect individuals and lead to their weakness.

	Subject: Classification of the toxic chemical agents

1- By application

- Lethal chemical agents:	
Agents that have serious effects and cause death when used in lethal concentrations.

- Disabling agents
They cause physiological or / and psychological effects and render individuals 
incapable of concentrating on performing their entrusted activities.

- Disturbing agents
They have effects when used in high concentrations

- Training materials
They are used for training purposes and have characteristics that resemble those of the 
toxic chemical agents Training materials may be not used with [illegible]  
decontamination [illegible] prevention.

2- By duration

- Immobile toxic chemical agents / they do not diffuse
They are agents that retain the toxic effects for hours or days such as Mustard, 
Mustard Nitrogen etc.

- Mobile toxic chemical agents / they diffuse
They are agents that retain their toxic level for minutes or hours such as Phosgene and 
Hydrogen Cyanate

3- By physiological effect:

Lethal Toxic Chemical agents
1- Nerve agents
2- Bubbling agents
3- Blood Agents with general effect
4- Penetrating agents

Non lethal toxic chemical agents
1- Tear agents
2-Vomiting agents 
3- Psychological effect agents

4- By physiology

Lethal toxic chemical agents

1- Nerve agents
2- Bubbling agents
3. General effect agents
4- Choking agents

Non lethal toxic chemical agents

1- Tear agents
2- Vomiting agents
3- Psychological effect agents


Subject: Nerve Agents

They include Sarin, Suman, Tabun, and VX

Biological symptoms of nerve agents:

1- Pinpoint eye pupils which lead to weak vision especially in bad conditions
2- Difficulty in breathing because of muscle shrinkage in the lungs
3- Increase in nasal discharges and salivation
4- Excessive cold sweat
5- Pain in the forehead
6- Increase in heart beats
7- Diarrhea caused by intestine shrinkage
8- In severe cases, they cause [illegible] 
9- Death when heart beats and breathing stop in high concentrations

It occurs by using the following protective gear:
a. Protective mask
b. Protective clothing for the body like protective cloak and gloves
c. Conditioned shelters

First aid measures for nerve agents

1- Wear a protective mask

2- Inject Atropine shot

3- Perform artificial respiration

4- Inject a second Atropine shot 10 minutes of the first is injected if the patient�s 
condition did not improve

5- Disinfect the contaminated part of the body with the small container in the 
decontamination tools in case of exposure to Sarin, Suman, Tabun, and the large 
container when exposed to the VX agent

6- Evacuate the victim to the nearest decontaminated area and the nearest medical 

	Bubbling agents


1- The skin:	When the skin is exposed to drops of a mustard liquid, the penetration 
period is 2 to 3 minutes on the external part of the skin. Then, they 
penetrate another layer of the skin within 7 minutes and they are totally 
absorbed by the skin in 20 to 30 minutes. The symptoms do not appear 
during this period but only after 2 to 6 hours of incubation. Sometimes 
they remain for up to 12 hours depending on the contamination level on 
the surface of the skin and the skin condition. Then, the following 
symptoms appear:
		a. The contaminated part becomes red. 
		b. Painful irritation
		c. Small bubbles appear
		d. The size of the small bubbles increases and the bubbles are more dense.
		They  remain for 3 to 4 days during which they are exposed to 

The healing period lasts one to two or more months. Most of infected area is covered 
with brown spots.

2- The eyes: When exposed mustard smoke, the following symptoms appear: (Red eyes)
	1- Red eyes
	2- A feeling that there is sand in the eyes
	3- Lack of
	4- Severe allergy to light
	5- Tear tissues inflammations

They are accompanied by [illegible]. The above symptoms appear depending on the 
agent�s concentration and exposure period.

When exposed
If the eyes are directly exposed to mustard drops, this leads to a permanent loss of 

3- The respiratory system

In case mustard gas is inhaled, the respiratory system becomes red and the following 
symptoms appear within 4 to 6 hours:

1- Dry mouth
2- Chest pains
3- Breathing difficulty
4- Gradual loss of voice
5- Respiratory tract inflammation 
6- In high concentrations, they lead to death

4- The digestive system: The effect of mustard on the digestive system is more serious 
than the effect of the [illegible]. The symptoms are the following:

1- Inflammation of the internal tissues of the digestive system, the pharynx, the stomach 
and the intestines)
2- Decrease in strength and headaches

Protective gear number 1 is used: protective mask, cloak, foot gear, and gloves for the 
protection from bubbling agents.


	First aid measures

The skin: When mustard drops fall on the skin, the following measures are taken:
1- Wear a protective mask
2- Remove the drops with the gauze cloth in the decontamination and first aid tools.
3- Disinfect the contaminated area in the large container
4- After decontamination, [illegible] the cloth in the solution on the contaminated area 
for  less than 5 minutes

The eyes
Eyes are washed with a  2% solution Sodium Bicarbonate, 0.2 % of Monochloramine, or 
use a large quantity of water.

The respiratory system:
1- Wear a protective mask
2- Evacuate the contaminated area
3- Gargle with 2% solution of Sodium Bicarbonate
4- Perform artificial respiration

The digestive system:
1- Perform artificial respiration
2- Evacuate the person to the nearest medical point.

General effect agents:
They include the following components:
Hydrogen Cyanate + Cyanogen Chloride + Phosphate + Arsine

1- A feeling of burn and a taste in the mouth
2- Strange feeling in throat
3- Nausea
4- Vomit
5- Headaches and general weakness
6- Breathing difficulty
7- Death because of the heart failure

Only a protective mask is used for protection. Also note a special [illegible] to protect 
from Carbon monoxide and [illegible].

	First aid measures
1- Wear a protective mask
2- The infected is given [illegible] while wearing a mask in case [illegible]
3- Evacuate the contaminated area and perform artificial respiration
4- [illegible] the infected when necessary
5- Give oxygen at the medical facilities.

Remark: 2% solution of Sodium Bicarbonate is used to wash eyes when exposed.

Choking agents
Biological symptoms - Phosgene -Diphosgene - Triphosgene

When inhaling air that is contaminated with phosgene, the victim feels some irritation in 
the respiratory system, a strange taste in the mouth, a slight dizziness in the head, and a 
general weakness.
[illegible] to put an end to the phosgene exposure [illegible] the mentioned symptoms 
and the incubation period starts, ranges between 4 and 5 hours, develops when the 
pulmonary tissues are exposed. The following symptoms appear:
1- Accelerated breathing
2- Intense coughing that is accompanied by nasal discharges that may sometimes 
contain blood
3- Headache and dizziness that are accompanied by chest pains
4- Excessive heart beats, a general weakness, and breathing difficulty
5- Cyanosis on the skin of the face, ears, and hands.
6- In extreme cases, death during the first two days. In high dosages, [illegible] 
incubation period and symptoms appear as soon as the victim is [illegible] 

Wear a protective mask because the agents affect the respiratory system.

	First aid measures
1- Wear a protective mask
2- Isolate the victim from the contaminated area
3- Provide the necessary rest to the victim
4- Facilitate the breathing process by removing the equipment
5- Give the victim a hot drink and provide oxygen through breathing 
6- Move the victim to the nearest medical facility

Remark: It is prohibit to perform the artificial respiration.

Subject: Protective mask / How to put on and take off  
	Choosing the size of the mask

Protective mask: 	Military equipment that is used to protect the respiratory and 
digestive systems, the face, and eyes from the effects of chemical 

	How to choose the size of the mask

The size is chosen by measuring the size of the head in two phases:

First phase: Take the measurement of the head starting from the chin area to the highest 
point of the head.

Second phase: Measure the front part of the head from the ears going through  the 
forehead to the other ear

	If the total of the head measurement is:
	Less than 92 	number zero
	92 - 92.5 		number 1
	95.5 - 99 		number 2
	99 - 102.5 		number 3
	102.5 and above 	number 4

As to the Yugoslavian mask	95 and below 	number 1	M
					95 - 102.5 		number 2 	S
					102.5 and above	number 3 	[D]

Packing the mask 
a. The [illegible] is put in its place in the [illegible]. It place should be [illegible] towards 
the [illegible]  
b. The face cover is held in the right hand then folded in the left hand to cover the 
c. The nozzle is held with the left hand in [illegible]  then put in the case which pull the 
face cover which must take some space in the lower [illegible] 

Wearing and removing the protective mask
a. Stop breathing and close eyes
b. Lift the head cover and put it between the [illegible] and then backwards.
c. Pull the face cover and hold it with the hands.
d. Put the lower part of the face cover between the [illegible] then pull the fingers above 
and wear the head part so the face cover or the vision glass become in front of the eyes
e. Make a strong sigh and open eyes then continue breathing normally.

	Removing the mask

1 - The protective mask is taken off by using remove mask

a. The weapon is hung on the shoulder or between legs.
b. Remove the head cover with left hand and hold the face cover [illegible] with the right 
hand slightly pull forward and above, then remove the mask
c. Return head cover to its place
d. Face cover is turned and wiped from inside with a clean gauze cloth. It is then soaked 
and dried.
e. Give mask [illegible] leave mask [illegible] in the case

	Subject: Decontamination an first aid gear

	Bulgarian and Yugoslavian

Bulgarian gear: Plastic box which consists of a metal nail to pierce the plastic containers

Purpose of the gear:
a- to perform an immediate decontamination operation to contaminated persons and 
2- to assist victims of nerve agents
3- to reduce the effect of exposure to scaring and smoke agents
4- to reducing the effects of radiation
5- to be used when exposed to toxic chemical agents or nerve agents symptoms appear 
without warning

Contents of the gear:

a. Small container:	Is used for nerve agents (Sarin, Suman) and contains Sodium 

b. Large container: 	Is used to decontaminate from bubbling agents and nerve agent 
VX. It contains 80% alcohol 6% [illegible] Chloride and 

c. 4 [illegible] tubes: 	2 contain 20% Chloroform, 4% alcohol, 3 to 5 [illegible] and 
two [illegible]

d. Atropine injection shot: 	used in nerve agents and are [illegible] Sulfate

e. [illegible] pills to remove radiation

f. 4 to 6 pieces of gauze cloth

g. wood pieces

		Yugoslavian decontamination and first aid tools

Contents: they are:
a. A plastic container which contains a white detergent to disinfect  the skin and the 
b. A plastic container that contains 2 [illegible] pills
c. A plastic container that contains two Atropine shots
e. A plastic container that contains 10 grams of Sodium Bicarbonate
f. 4 cotton bandages to apply and remove the detergent when disinfecting  the face and 
the skin.
g. Paper napkins to remove the drops of a toxic chemical agent
h. Wire to pull out the tools

Nuclear weapons

Their Effects: 	1 - they are self destructive or they are destroyed when an 
explosion occurs such as the blast or what is know as the blast 
wave , the effect of the heat, and heat radiations
			2- they may remain for a period after the explosion like the various 
nuclear radiations

Measures that are taken by a unit during a chemical attack

1- Warn unit members immediately and make sure that the warning reaches all unit  

2- Wear protective gear

3- Identify the attacked area

4- Inform the higher headquarters and other sub-units

5- Submit reports and samples to the higher headquarters

6- Perform partial decontamination operation

7- Do not remove protective equipment before making sure that the area is  

Protection from the effects of the shock, the blast wave and the heat radiation

1- During the explosion of a nuclear bomb, a soldier who is uncovered must take a main 
protective measure through a  reaction represented by the action of lying on the ground 
with his face to the ground and his eyes closed. It is better that this action is taken in a 
trench and very quickly

2- During a shock wave and a heat radiation, the protective measure is to create and 
prepare the protective locations (such as digging trenches and building shelters) by 
using the protective nature of the ground (by using caves, valleys, etc.)

3. Simple measures are taken against fires and  the necessary material is provided to 
extinguish a fire such as water, sand, earth, fire extinguishing equipment.

4. The protective mask (the face part) provides the face with a protection from heat 
radiation and the individual protective equipment are provided such as light and thick 
protective cloaks, protective foot gear, protective gloves, skin protection at the same 


		Subject Individual decontamination gear
		Description and use

Decontamination levels:

First level:	Decontamination occurs in the battlefield. The fighter decontaminates 
himself with the decontamination and first aid tools

Second level:	In the non chemical units, individual decontamination equipment are used 
such as ADK1, DK4, RDB4

Third level:	Occurs in the chemical units to open full decontamination chemical 


Subject: Principals of using smoke

Smoke:	small particles stuck in the air that look like aerosols that absorbed each of 
the main light radiations and infra red radiations

		Rules for using smoke

1- The target should not be in the location of smoke clouds

2- Hide all the signs that point to the target and are useful to the enemy to determine the 

3- The surface of the cloud must be adequate to the surface of the target such as the 
size or the surface of the cloud must be from 3 to 5 times as much as the surface of the 
In important targets, they are between 10 to 15 times. In serious targets, the length of 
the [illegible] should be from 1 time to twice the length of the target.

4- Provide a 10 % reserve of the means to generate smoke.

5- Provide good means of communication

6- Generate a [illegible] of 3 to 3 and hide the target at an angle of 360 degrees from all 
the [illegible]

7- Take into consideration the weather conditions when using smoke
Chemical corps of the seventh division

	Purpose for using smoke

a. Smoke [illegible] in large areas. They include:

	1- Air [illegible]
	2- Hide the artillery location which includes the flash
	3- Prepare the battle locations
	4- Administrative locations
	5- Locations for the mobilization of the troops and the vehicles
	6- Troops transportation and [illegible]
	7- Passage location for rivers and bridges

b. Small smoke [illegible. They are used:

1- to evacuate the victims
2- to evacuate the bases
3- to [illegible] the [illegible] points 
4- to evacuate the equipment that are out of order
5- Areas and roads of the [illegible]

		Methods of generating smoke

1- The methods used in the chemical corps include:

a. Smoke containers and they are three types:

First: 		Small: 	Weight 3 kg, Period to generate smoke 5 to 7 minutes, length of the 
smoke cloud that is generated 50 to 70 m, and width 
30 to 35m

Second: 	Medium 	Weight 7 to 7.5 Kg, Period to generate smoke 14 to 16 
minutes, Length of the smoke cloud generated 70 to 100 m, 
and width 40 - 50 m

Third: 	Large 	Weight 40 to 41 kg, Period to generate smoke 15 - to 17 minutes, length of 
the smoke cloud 125  to 150m, and width 80 to 90 meters

b. Colored smoke containers
Smoke generating period: 30 seconds. They are used for signaling.

c. Mechanical smoke generators
Smoke generating period:

d. Smoke generating vehicles

e. Smoke missiles

Methods used in various divisions

a. Smoke grenades

b. Artillery mortar shells

c. Aircraft smoke bombs

d. Smoke generating equipment for [illegible] and tanks

Incendiary and protective materials and mixtures

a. Thermit and electron: A mixture of [illegible] oxide that has the color of [illegible].  It is 
very effective when it burns since its temperature increases to about 3000 degrees. This 
temperature is sufficient to break the tanks, barracks, and metal equipment. The 
[illegible] reaches 2 cm. Its effect is limited to the [illegible] area only. It also burns 
without air.
As to electron, it is a mixture of magnesium, aluminum and other metals. The 
temperature  increases during the burning period to about 2800 C degrees. Thermit may 
be distinguished in the field by observing colorless smoke or a mixture of Thermit that is 
characterized by an integrated ball with white smokeless flames. If [illegible], remove 
with earth and do not use water to extinguish it because it explodes and causes serious 
effects on the area.

b. White and yellow [illegible]
It is a solid transparent material that resembles wax. Its temperature decreases during 
the burning period to about 900 to 1200 C degrees. It causes serious and severe burns 
when it falls on the skin.
If it penetrates the blood or the digestive system, it has a strong toxic effect and causes 
[illegible] in the [illegible] and may lead to forest burning during the summer. It may be 
[illegible] in the field [illegible] and has a bright yellow color with thick white smoke.

c. Napalm 
Napalm is considered among the main substances of the incendiary materials that are 
prepared. Napalm is a [illegible] material. It is used to [illegible] fires  with fuel since the 
substance gives a certain viscosity to fuel and it burns slowly. The temperature reaches 
[illegible] military missions from 1000 to 2000 C degrees. It gives a  thick black smoke 
and a red flame and  may be extinguished with the fire extinguisher or the process of 
reserving [illegible].

		Methods for using incendiary substances and mixtures

a. They are widely used by both air and ground forces and exits in the [illegible] of most 
armies [illegible] with small charges 2kg to 250 kg for the largest. The small bombs of 
Thermit [illegible] and more concentrated including 2kg bombs

b. Small incendiary bombs which weigh less than 2 kg are used within large envelops 
and containers that fit an amount that ranges from 6 to 150 [illegible]. They can be seen 
at a wide distance from a valley since they form many metal pits.

c. There are also tanks that may contain from 300 to 600 liters of Napalm of various 
weights that range from 200 to 1500 pounds. The incendiary mixture which contains 
these mixtures causes a fire pit  with a surface of [illegible] 45 m and a burning period 
that ranges from 5 to 10 minutes.

		Preventive measures if incendiary substances

a. When fighting  the enemy�s flight, the best way of protection among the incendiary 
substances that are used by the air force since the aircraft�s altitude does not exceed 
600 m. Otherwise, Napalm would not hit the targets.

b. All units that are on the locations, the mobilization areas, or the headquarters have to 
assemble all the missions, equipment, and weapons that may burn and keep them in 
shelters. They also have to have the means to extinguish fires and be ready to 
extinguish all fires everywhere. 

c.   The ground that is equipped with barriers and trenches [illegible] in defending 
[illegible] in battles since one small hole provides protection from a nearby fire or was 
only [illegible]

d. Prevent Napalm from falling through the holes of the surveillance area in the 
locations and trenches. Easy to open and return covers may be used.

e. Entries to shelters and trenches must be covered with [illegible] at the angles 
[illegible]. They are covered with earth and boards. The angles of [illegible] napalm must 
be [illegible]. 

f. Shelters and trenches must be at an average of less than 1 m2

g. The anti [illegible] suits for [illegible] are used [illegible] unusable substances

h. Flame bombs do not affect the enemy [illegible] 

Methods to extinguish incendiary substances

1. The protective cloak, coats, various covers, plastic sheets, and protective equipment 
are used  to protect the skin from burns since these substances [illegible] napalm 
directly [illegible]   to protect the face, eyes [illegible] protection [illegible] long 

2. Napalm may be extinguished in holes or the ground with earth and sand. Therefore, 
the various methods must be prepared. Fire units empty [illegible] incendiary napalm 
such as water and sand to [illegible  from other many materials

3. Do not use water to extinguish napalm since it leads to expanding the incendiary 
effects of napalm and therefore increase the scope of fires.

4. It is very difficult to extinguish the incendiary Thermit and electron. It is prohibited to 
pour water on them in [illegible] quantities since it increases the fire because water 
[illegible] to incendiary substances such as oxygen and hydrogen

5. It is preferable to extinguish Thermit and electron by covering with water or sand to 
prevent the expansion of incendiary substances but this does not lead to extinguishing 
it totally but water should be poured abundantly.

6. Incendiary [illegible] may be extinguished by [illegible] oxygen to cover many things 
such as clothing, [illegible], and tents and [illegible] it with earth and sand.

	Chemical attack indications

1. Low bomb explosion sound

2. An oily spot appears on the ground and grass near the place of the explosion.

3. A cloud or smoke appears where the explosion occurred and travels with the wind

4. A strange odor appears in the area such as the smell of rotten eggs, garlic, rotten fish, 
or cut grass

5. [illegible] appears behind the aircrafts and disappears quickly because of its fall on 
the ground

6. Dead or disabled birds

7. Change in the color of plant, grass or others

8. Primary symptoms appears on persons

9. Some marks or signs of shrapnel or chemical equipment

1- Thermit
2- 6- 8- 8- 10
3- Bubbles
4-Isolating parts

1- x
2- x
3. -
4- x


Chemical Warning

Chemical warning signal within a unit

Local warning signals

1. Methods [illegible]

2. Methods [illegible]

3. Using [illegible]

4. Using vehicle [illegible] and others

5. Repeating the words GAS GAS

6. Telecommunications

The simple case

Individual protection: It contains 	protective gear number 1	property of each soldier
					protective gear number 2 	to recognize the [illegible]
					protective gear number 3 	to decontamination 
persons 									and teams

Collective protection: It contains a shelter and the protection is collective and [illegible]. 

Contents of the protective gear number 1

1. Protective mask

2. Protective cloak

3. Light gloves

4. Light protective foot gear

How to wear			How to remove
1- Wear protective mask	Take off mask
2- Protective cloak
3- Gloves
4. Protective foot gear

The session ended 
8/9/1990 [illegible]



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