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File: 950901_091634ja_91d.txt
Page: 91d
Total Pages: 1

Iraqi Report

Filename:091634ja.91d
Subject: Iraqi Report
             FROM: DIRAFMIC FT DETRICK MD //AFMIC-S&TI//

             TO:    USCINCENT //CCJ2//



PASS TO    [   (b)(6)   ]

1.           [      (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)    ] THE IRAQIS HAVE 
DEVELOPED 
A PILL THAT COULD BE PUT INTO THE DRINKS OF US  PERSONNEL WHICH
COULD CAUSE DEATH IN ABOUT 15 DAYS.  IT IS IMPOSSIBLE WITH THE
INFORMATION PROVIDED TO STATE WITH ANY DEGREE OF CONFIDENCE THE
IDENTITY OF THE AGENT IN QUESTION AND ITS ANTIDOTE.  BASED ON THE
INTELLIGENCE THAT IS AVAILABLE TO DATE, THE FOLLOWING AGENTS ARE
CONSIDERED AS POSSIBLE CANDIDATES.

2.   CHOLERA TOXIN IS A WATER SOLUBLE PROTEIN (MW 82-84,000 
DALTONS).  THE ORGANISM COULD RE PUT INTO A WATER BASED BEVERAGE.
THE CHOLERA WOULD THEN INVADE THE INTESTINE WHERE THEY WOULD
PRODUCE THE TOXIN.   DIARRHEA, SHOCK AND DEATH CAN ENSUE.  
MORTALITY RATE MAY BE AS HIGH AS 60 PERCENT BUT CAN BE REDUCED TO 
LESS THAN 1 PERCENT BY IV REPLACEMENT OF FLUID.  CHLORPROMAZINE IS 
USED FOR TREATMENT.   DISEASE LASTS A FEW DAYS.  MOUSE LD 50 (1P) 
IS ABOUT 250 MICROGRAMS PER KG.  IT IS GENERALLY FELT THAT 
MEAT-EATING AMERICANS ARE LESS SUSCEPTIBLE TO CHOLERA THAN ARE 
INDIVIDUALS FROM OTHER LESS WELL-FED COUNTRIES.  DUE TO ITS RAPID 
ONSET AND LOW MORTALITY RATE IN WESTERNERS- CHOLERA PROBABLY IS 
NOT A GOOD CANDIDATE FOR THE CONDITIONS DESCRIBED.

3.   STAPHYLOCOCCAL ENTEROTOXINS ARE HEAT STABLE AND WATER
SOLUBLE.  AFTER  INGESTION, SYMPTOMS (VOMITING AND DIARRHEA) 
APPEAR IN ABOUT 1-6 HOURS.    STAPHYLOCOCCAL ENTEROTOXIN B (SEB) 
TOXICITY BY THE ORAL ROUTE FOR MONKEYS IS ABOUT 2-9 MICROGRAMS PER 
KG. SYMPTOMS RARELY LAST FOR LONGER THAN 24 HOURS.  DEATH IS RARE 
AFTER ACCIDENTAL INGESTION.  SEB ALSO WOULD NOT BE A GOOD 
CANDIDATE FOR THE SCENARIO DESCRIBED BECAUSE OF ITS LOW MORTALITY 
AFTER
INGESTION.

4.    BOTULINUM TOXINS ARE WATER SOLUBLE AND THE HUMAN ORAL LDSO
IS ABOUT 0.4 UG.  ONLY 1 IN 100,000 PARTS OF ORALLY ADMINISTERED
ROTULINUM TOXIN GETS INTO THE CIRCULATION.  TIME TO DEATH IS
ESTIMATED TO RANGE FROM 0.6 TO 4.5 DAYS.  BOTULINUM TOXIN WOULD BE
- A GOOD AGENT FOR USE IN POISONING WATER SUPPLIES -- WATER 
BLADDERS, BULK WATER SUPPLIES (OR SOFT DRINKS) BEFORE BOTTLING, OR 
WATER MAINS    RELATIVELY SMALL AMOUNTS OF TOXIN WOULD BE NEEDED- 
IT WOULD BE 0DORLESS, TASTELESS, AND COLORLESS, AND QUANTITIES OF
TOXIN NEEDED WOULD BE EASY TO CONCEAL.  NEVERTHELESS- DEATH WOULD
ENSUE BEFORE THE 15 DAY TIME PERIOD SPECIFIED.  THEREFORE,
BOTULINUM TOXIN PROBABLY WOULD NOT BE USED IF A LONGER TIME TO
DEATH WERE REQUIRED.

5.    CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS HAS BEEN REPORTED AS ONE OF THE

AGENTS THE IRAQIS HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATING AS WARFARE AGENTS.  THE
ALPHA TOXIN PRODUCED BY CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IS AN ENZYMES
(LECITHINASE) AND WOULD PROBABLY BE DENATURED IN STOMACH ACIDS.
THESE TOXINS ARE HEMOLYTIC, DERMONECROTIC AND LETHAL.  HOWEVER,
THERE IS LITTLE INFORMATION IN THE LITERATURE REGARDING ORAL
POISONING BY THIS TOXINS PROBABLY BECAUSE SUCH EVENTS OCCUR RARELY
IF AT ALL.  HOWEVER, THE INGESTION OF THE ORGANISM AND SUBSEQUENT
PRODUCTION OF TOXIN IN THE GUT MIGHT PRODUCE DEATH.  THIS CANNOT 
BE
STATED WITH CONFIDENCE.  PERFRINGENS TOXIN IS NOT CONSIDERED TO GE
A GOOD CANDIDATE FOR THIS SCENARIO.

6.[   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]   THE IRAQIS WERE USING THALLIUM TO
ASSASSINATE POLITICAL ENEMIES BY ADDING IT TO THEIR FOOD OR DRINK.
I DON'T KNOW HOW GOOD THEIR INFORMATION IS, BUT THIS INFORMATION
IS ALSO REPORTED     [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]

                    THALLIUM CAN BE ABSORBED THROUGH THE SKIN OR 
FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.  ESTIMATED LETHAL DOSE IN HUMANS 
IS 8 TO 12 MG/KG-   FOR A 70 KG MAN, THIS WOULD CALCULATE TO 
560-840 MG PER MAN.  THIS IS ALMOST A GRAM AND MAY BE DIFFICULT TO 
PUT INTO A SINGLE DRINK.  IF A QUANTITY WERE PUT IN FOOD OR WATER 
SUPPLIES ON A REGULAR BASIS, IT WOULD NOT BE HARD TO ACHIEVE DEATH 
IN A SHORT TIME.  SYMPTOMS ARE USUALLY DELAYED 12 TO 24 HOURS IN 
ACUTE POISONING, THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND NERVOUS SYSTEM 
MOST OFTEN SHOW THE FIRST SIGNS OF POISONING.  NEUROLOGICAL 
SYMPTOMS OCCUR AT 2-5 DAYS WITH DEATH IN 5-7 DAYS IN LETHAL 
INTOXICATIONS.  IN MAN, FATTY INFILTRATION AND NECROSIS OF THE 
LIVERS NEPHRITIS, GASTROENTERITIS, PULMONARY EDEMA, DEGENERATIVE 
CHANGES IN THE ADRENALS AND DEATH HAVE BEEN REPORTED AS A RESULT 
OF LONG TERM THALLIUM INTAKE.

7.   THE MOST RELIABLE TEST FOR THALLIUM IS A 24 HOUR URINE
QUANTITATIVE ASSAY.  TREATMENT CONSISTS OF EMESIS INDUCTION IN
RECENT SUBSTANTIAL INGESTION, ADMINISTRATION OF CHARCOAL SLURRY,
AQUEOUS OR MIXED WITH SALINE CATHARTIC OR SORBITOL.   USUAL DOSE 
IS
30-100 GRAMS IN ADULTS AND 15-30 GRAMS IN CHILDREN.   PATIENT'S
CARDIAC, RENAL AND HEPATIC FUNCTIONS, AND  CALCIUM LEVELS SHOULD 
BE
MONITORED DURING THE ACUTE PHASE.   THERAPY WITH
DIETHYLTHIOCARBAMATE IS CONTRAINDICATED.

8.  THALLIUM IS ODORLESS, TASTELESS, AND COLORLESS AND WOULD
NOT BE EXPECTED TO BE DETECTED BY THESE SENSES IN LIQUIDS OR FOOD.

9.  BASED ON INTELLIGENCE AND THE TECHNICAL DATA, THALLIUM
IS THE MOST LIKELY AGENT TO BE USED IN THE STATED SCENARIO.

10. SINCE THALLIUM IS A CHEMICAL AGENT, INFORMATION ABOUT
ITS THREAT POTENTIAL SHOULD BE SOLICITED FROM [   (b)(6)   ]  AT
FOREIGN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CENTER (FSTC) IN CHARLOTTESVILLE-
VA.  AFMIC RESPONDS TO QUESTIONS REGARDING
SYMPTOMATOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY AND TREATMENT OF CHEMICAL AGENTS.

11.   [    b.2.    ] AND  [   (b)(6)   ]
 



 

 



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