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File: 950901_0184pgv_90d.txt
Page: 90d
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[    b.2.    ]CHEMICAL THREAT TO LOW-LEVEL FLIGHT OPS (u)

Filename:0184pgv.90d
[   (b)(2)   ]
08 DEC 90 1835 HRS [   (b)(6)   ]

[    b.2.    ]

SUBJECT:  [    b.2.    ]CHEMICAL THREAT TO LOW-LEVEL FLIGHT OPS 
(u)

1.  		IRAQ USED CHEMICAL AGENTS INCLUDING THE PERSISTENT 
BLISTER AGENT MUSTARD IN LIQUID AND DUSTY FORMS, THE SEMI-
PERSISTENT NERVE AGENTS TABUT (GA) AND GF, AND THE NON-PERSISTENT 
NERVE AGENT SARIN (GB) IN THEIR WAR WITH IRAN.  SINCE THE WAR, 
IRAQ MAY HAVE PRODUCED SMALL QUANTITIES OF THE PERSISTENT NERVE 
AGENT VX.   THEY MAY ALSO BE DEVELOPING THE NERVE AGENT SOMAN (GD) 
AND THE PSYCHOCHEMICAL BZ.  THEY MAY ALSO POSSESS A BLOOD AGENT 
(CYANIDE GAS).

2.		IRAQ POSSESSES A WIDE VARIETY OF CHEMICAL DELIVERY 
SYSTEMS: AERIAL BOMBS, ARTILLERY AND MORTAR ROUNDS, MULTIPLE 
ROCKET LAUNCHERS (MRLS)K, AND AIR-TO-SURFACE ROCKETS.  IRAQ IS THE 
ONLY  COUNTRY IN THE WORLD KNOWN TO HAVE HELICOPTER ROCKETS WITH 
CHEMICAL FILLS.  IRAQ HAS CHEMICAL WARHEADS FOR THEIR MODIFIED 
SCUDS, THE AL-HUSAYN AND THE AL-ABBAS.  DUE TO POOR ACCURACY, 
RELATIVELY SMALL CHEMCIAL PAYLOAD, AND LIMITED AVAILABILITY OF 
WARHEADS AND LAUNCHERS, IRAQI MISSILES HAVE ONLY LIMITED 
EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST MILITARY POINT TARGETS.

3.		AS THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR PROGRESSED, THE IRAQIS BECAME MORE 
PROFICIENT AT FUZING THEIR 250 KOLOGRAM AND 500 KILOGRAM BOMBS TO 
BURST AT THE PROPER ALTITUDE.  OPTIMAL DISSEMINATION WITH 
BALLISTIC MISSILES IS WITH AN AIR-BURST FUZE.  WHETHER OR NOT IRAQ 
HAS DEVELOPED AN EFFECTIVE AIR-BURST FUZE FOR THEIR BALLISTIC 
MISSILES IS NOT KNOWN.  CHEMICAL AGENTS CAN BE RELEASED AT GROUND 
LEVEL USING AN IMPACT-BURSTING FUZE, BUT RELEASE USING GROUND-
BURST FUZING, WHEREAS GA, GF, OR VX WOULD BE MORE EFFECTIVE WHEN 
RELEASED USING AN AIR-BURST FUZE.

4.		IN ADDITION TO THE HEIGHT OF BURST, MANY OTHER FACTORS 
INFLUENCE AT WHAT ALITITUDE A CHEMICAL AGENT CAN BE FOUND IN 
EFFECTIVE (CONTAMINATION OR CASUALTY PRODUCING) CONCENTRATIONS.  
SOME OF THESE FACTORS ARE:  TIME OF DAY THE THAT AGENT IS RELEASE 
(AN INVERSION IN THE EARLY MORNING HOURS GENERALLY HOLDS AN AGENT 
CLOSER TO THE GROUND), THE TYPE OF AGENT AND ITS VOLATILITY 
(DENSITY), AND OTHER METEROLOGY, SUCH AS WIND SPEED IN THE TARGET 
AREA, TEMPERATURE, AS WELL AS TYPE OF SOIL IN THE TARGET AREA.

5.		USING THE ABOVE DESCRIBED IRAQI CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS 
AND THEIR DELIVERY SYSTEMS, THERE ARE MANY VARIABLE WHICH WOULD BE 
USED TO PREDICT AT WHAT ALTITUDE RESIDUES OR VAPOR WOULD BE 
ENCOUNTERED IN WHAT CONCENTRATIONS AND WITH WHAT EFFECTIVENESS.  
IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT THESE DATA BE PROVIDED TO OPERATIONS 
ANALYSIS PERSONNEL SUCH AS THOSE AT [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ] 

  [   (b)(6)   ]
							[   (b)(2)   ]	
 



 

 



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