TAB A - Acronyms, Abbreviations and Glossary

This Tab lists acronyms found in this report. Additionally, the glossary defines selected technical terms not found in common usage.


I MEF I Marine Expeditionary Force
AOR area of responsibility
ARCENT United States Army Central Command
ASP ammunition supply point
BW biological warfare
CAM chemical agent monitor
CBDCOM Chemical and Biological Defense Command
CIA Central Intelligence Agency
CW Chemical Weapons;
chemical warfare
CWA chemical warfare agent
DIA Defense Intelligence Agency
DoD Department of Defense
DSC Direct Support Command
EOD explosive ordnance disposal
FSSG Force Service Support Group
GPS Global Positioning System
GySgt Gunnery Sergeant
MARDIV Marine Division
MARCENT United States Marine Forces Central Command
MOPP Mission Oriented Protective Posture
NAVEODTECHCEN Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center
NBC nuclear, biological, and chemical
NBCO nuclear, biological, and chemical officer
NCOIC non-commissioned officer in charge
SWA   southwest asia
UNSCOM United Nations Special Commission on Iraq
USCENTCOM US Central Command
VOS Vehicle Orientation System


Benzyl bromide

Benzyl bromide (C7H7Br) is a colorless to yellow liquid with a pungent odor. The Germans used it as a war gas in March 1915, but later completely abandoned it. Benzyl bromide usually is prepared in a laboratory by the action of bromine on toluene. Effects of short-term exposure include severe irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract.

Chemical names: alpha-Bromotoluene

Blister agent

A blister agent is a chemical warfare agent that produces local irritation and damage to the skin and mucous membranes, pain and injury to the eyes, reddened and blistered skin, and when inhaled, damage to the respiratory tract. Blister agents include mustards, arsenicals like lewisite, and mustard and lewisite mixtures. Blister agents are also called vesicants or vesicant agents.[119]

Chemical and Biological Defense Command (CBDCOM)

CBDCOM is a US Army command with a mission to provide research, development, and acquisition for nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC), and obscurant equipment for the US Forces; to act as the Army NBC defense commodity command; to provide management of joint service NBC defense material; to provide US chemical stockpile management and safe storage; to provide installation management; to prepare for and respond to chemical biological emergency events/accidents; provide weapons of mass destruction (chemical or biological) domestic preparedness support; to conduct emergency remediation/restoration actions at chemical sites; to provide successful planning, management, and execution of treaty responsibilities; and to provide demilitarization support. The Chemical and Biological Defense Command merged with the Soldier Support Command to form the Soldier and Biological Chemical Command.[120]

Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM)

A chemical agent monitor is a hand-held, soldier-operated device used to monitor chemical warfare agent contamination on soldiers and equipment. The chemical agent monitor may give false readings when used in enclosed spaces or sampling near strong vapor sources (e.g., in dense smoke). Some vapors known to give false readings are aromatic vapors (perfumes, food flavorings, some aftershaves, peppermints, cough lozenges, and menthol cigarettes when vapors are exhaled directly into the nozzle); cleaning compounds (disinfectants, methyl salicylate, menthol), smokes and fumes (exhaust from some rocket motors, fumes from some munitions); and some wood preservative treatments (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls).[121]

Chemical warfare agent (CWA)

A chemical warfare agent is a chemical substance used in military operations to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate through its physiological effects. Excluded are riot control agents, herbicides, smoke, and flame. Included are blood, nerve, blister, choking, and incapacitating agents.[122]


The amount of a chemical agent present in a unit volume, usually expressed in milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) of air.[123] Concentration can be used to calculate whether chemical warfare agent vapors would physically affect unprotected, exposed people.


The term dosage represents a cumulative exposure (to chemical warfare agents) over a period of time and is calculated by multiplying the amount of agent present by the time of exposure (mg•min/m3). Specific dosages produce specific physical symptoms.[124]


The quantity of chemical warfare agent having entered the body. The effect a chemical warfare agent vapor has on a person depends on the cumulative dose received through breathing or absorption.[125]

Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD)

The detection, identification, on-site evaluation, rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of unexploded explosive ordnance. It also may include removal of explosive ordnance that has become hazardous by damage or deterioration.[126]


A World Wide Web site maintained for the Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness) for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military Deployments (


A blister agent known as distilled mustard.

Chemical name: Bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide[127]


A blister agent which is a mustard-T mixture.

Chemical name: HD: Bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide

T: Bis [2(2-chloroethylthio) ethyl] ether[128]

H-series blister agents

A series of persistent blister agents that includes levinstein (sulfur) mustards (H), distilled mustard (HD), nitrogen mustards (HN), a mustard-lewisite mixture (HL), a mustard-T mixture (HT), a sulfur-mustard/sesqui-mustard mixture (HQ), and sesqui-mustard (Q).[129]

M18 and M18A2 Chemical Agent Detector Kits

The M18 and improved M18A2 kits are portable, expendable items capable of surface and vapor analyses. The M18A2 kit is designed primarily for detecting dangerous concentrations of vapors, aerosols, and liquid droplets of chemical agents. Distinctive color changes indicate the presence of a chemical warfare agent.[130]

M8 Chemical Agent Detector Paper

M8 paper is used to detect the presence of liquid chemical warfare agents. M8 paper responds (changes color) within 30 seconds of exposure to liquid G and V nerve agents and H or L blister agents. It does not detect chemical warfare agent vapors. The detector dyes react to different pH levels by changing to one of three colors: yellow indicates the presence of a G-series nerve agent; green indicates a V nerve agent; red indicates the presence of H-series or L blister agents. M8 paper responds to some common battlefield interferents. Among them are certain cleaning solvents (ammonia), decontaminating solution number 2 (DS20, "Break Free" (a weapons cleaner and lubricant), high temperatures, and some petroleum products.[131]

Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP)

Mission oriented protective posture (MOPP) is a flexible system used to direct the wearing of chemical protective garments and mask—a system that balances mission requirements with the chemical warfare agent threat. Wearing chemical protective garments and mask provides soldiers protection against most known chemical warfare agents, biological agents, and toxins.

At MOPP Level 0 soldiers carry their protective masks while their remaining MOPP gear must be readily available (e.g., within the work area, fighting position, living space, etc.) At MOPP Level 1, soldiers wear their overgarments and carry the rest of their MOPP gear. At MOPP Level 2, soldiers wear their overgarments and overboots while carrying the masks with hood and gloves. At MOPP Level 3, soldiers wear their overgarments, overboots, and masks with hood, but not the gloves. At MOPP Level 4, soldiers wear all their MOPP gear.[132] Commanders can raise or lower the amount of protection through five levels of MOPP. In addition, commanders, under certain situations, can exercise a mask-only option.[133]

MM-1 Mobile Mass Spectrometer

The MM-1 mobile mass spectrometer is the primary chemical warfare agent detector in the Fox vehicle. During Operation Desert Storm, the MM-1 monitored against a target list of approximately 10 selected chemical warfare agents most likely to be present, based on intelligence reports of the suspected chemical warfare agent threat. To speed the initial search, the sampling probe operates at 180� C and the MM-1 looks for only four ion peaks of each detected chemical warfare agent and attempts to match the target list of chemicals against the pattern and ratio of these peaks. If an initial match is made with these four ion peaks at a pre-determined intensity and relationship, the MM-1 sounds an alarm. However, this first alert does not confirm the presence of a chemical warfare agent, since there are many chemicals that have similar ion peaks and many combinations of chemicals that may yield ion patterns similar to those in the target list. Consequently, the MM-1 can falsely indicate the presence of dangerous chemical warfare agents. To more conclusively determine what chemical is present, the operator must lower the sampling probe temperature to 120� C, re-acquire a sample of the suspected substance, and run a spectrum analysis with the MM-1 against all the detection algorithms stored in the MM-1 chemical library. For more detailed analysis later, the complete ion spectrum of the suspected sample can be printed on a paper tape.[134]

Soldier and Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM)

Headquartered at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, SBCCOM has a broad research, development and acquisition mission to ensure the decisive edge and maximum protection for the United States. SBCCOM develops, acquires, and sustains soldier, soldier support, and nuclear, biological, and chemical defense technology, systems, and services. SBCCOM also provides for safe storage, treaty compliance, and destruction of chemical materiel.[135]

Task force

A temporary grouping of units, under one commander, formed to carry out a specific operation or mission; a semi-permanent organization of units, under one commander, formed to carry out a continuing specific task.[136]

Vehicle Orientation System (VOS)

The Fox vehicle system that provided position information and allowed the crew to report areas of possible chemical contamination. The VOS relied on the number of wheel revolutions to determine the vehicle’s position. Therefore, if the wheels turned without moving the vehicle (for example, when stuck in the sand), from that point on the location the VOS displayed would be inaccurate. Resetting the VOS required a visual fix on a major land feature—an infrequent occurrence in the desert. The more accurate Global Positioning System has since replaced the VOS.[137]

XM93 Fox Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Reconnaissance Vehicle

The Fox is a six-wheeled, light-armored vehicle intended primarily for reconnaissance of liquid chemical warfare agent hazards. On-board chemical warfare agent detection capabilities include the MM-1 Mobile Mass Spectrometer, the primary detection device; the M43A1 chemical agent detector, an integral component of the M8 alarm system; and the M256A1 chemical agent detector kit. The Fox also is equipped with two radiation detectors. The Fox does not provide any biological warfare agent detection capability, but it does protect the crew from biological hazards, and allows the crew to mark areas of potential hazard and safely take samples for laboratories to analyze for biological hazards.[138]

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