Environmental Exposure Report

Pesticides

Environmental Exposure Reports are reports of what we know today about certain events of the 1990-1991 Gulf War. This particular environmental exposure report focuses on the use of pesticides by US military personnel and the resulting exposures to these compounds. Our goal is, to the extent possible, to determine if the pesticides used during the Gulf War contributed to unexplained illnesses reported by some Gulf War veterans. This is an interim, not a final, report. We hope that you will read this and contact us with any information that would help us better understand the events reported here. With your help, we will be able to report more accurately on the events surrounding pesticide use and exposures.  Please contact my office to report any new information by calling:

1-800-497-6261

 

Dale A. Vesser
Acting Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military Deployment
Department of Defense

2001023-0000014

Ver 1.1

Last Update: March 1, 2001

Many veterans of the Gulf War have expressed concern that their unexplained illnesses may result from their experience in that war. In response to veterans’ concerns, the Department of Defense established a task force in June 1995 to investigate those incidents and circumstances relating to possible causes. The Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses assumed responsibility for these investigations on November 12, 1996.  Effective July 26, 2000, this office became the Office of the Special Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military Deployments, with continued responsibility for Gulf War issues.  We continue to gather information on the use and exposure to pesticides. This is the office’s interim report.

To inform the public about the progress of this office, the Department of Defense publishes on the Internet and elsewhere accounts related to the possible causes of illness among Gulf War veterans, along with documentary evidence or personal testimony used in compiling the accounts. This environmental exposure report is such an account.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART A – ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE REPORT
 
A.1  SUMMARY
 
A.2  METHODOLOGY
A.  Investigation Process
1.  Database Searches
2.  Department of Defense Guidelines and Policies
3.  Health Effects Literature Search
4.  Gulf War Veteran Survey
5.  Personnel Interviews
6.  Health Risk Assessment
B.  Health Risk Assessment
 
A.3  BACKGROUND
A.  Potential Pest-Borne Health Threats in the Gulf
B.  Concerns About Pesticide Use in the Gulf
C.  Pesticides of Potential Concern
 
A.4  PESTICIDE USE AND EXPOSURE
A.   Introduction
B.  General Use Pesticides
1.  Repellents
2.  Fly Control
3.  Personal Delousing Agent
4.  Flea and Tick Collars
C.  Field Use Pesticides
1.  Certified Pesticides Applicators
2.  Field Sanitation Teams
D.  Delousing Pesticide
E.  British and French Use
F.  Host Nation Use
 
A.5  HEALTH EFFECTS OVERVIEW
A.  Pesticides of Potential Concern (POPC)
1.  Organophosphates
2.  Carbamates
3.  Organochlorines
4.  Pyrethroids
5.  Repellents
6.  Inert Ingredients
B.  Pyridostigmine Bromide (PB)
 
A.6  SUMMARY OF HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
A.  Introduction and Major Findings
1.  What the HRA Tells Us
2.  What the HRA Does Not Tell Us
B.  Data Collection
C.  Exposure Scenarios and Analysis
1.  Exposure Estimates
2.  Toxicity
3.  General Military Population
4.  Pesticide Applicators
D.  Possible Cumulative Effects
 
A.7  CONCLUSIONS
 
A.8  SUGGESTED AREAS FOR ADDITIONAL RESEARCH
 
A.9  LESSONS LEARNED
A.  Host Nation Application
B.  Delousing
C.  Training and Experience
D.  Supply Distribution and Local Purchase
E.  Equipment and Facilities
F.  Record-keeping
G.  Occupational Medical Surveillance
H.  Communications
I.  Command Support
 
PART B – HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
 
B.1  INTRODUCTION
 
B.2  DATA COLLECTION AND EVALUATION
A.  Exposure Data from Survey and Interviews
1.  Survey
2.  Preventive Medicine Interviews
3.  Fly Bait Interviews
4.  Delousing Interviews
B.  Screening Pesticide Products for Risk Assessment
 
B.3  EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT
A.  Introduction
B.  Quantifying Exposure in Personnel
1.  Exposure Point Concentrations
2.  Human Intakes
3.  Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database
C.  Personal-Use Products
1.  Application Scenarios
2.  Post-Application Scenarios
D.  Area Spray
1.  Application Scenarios
2.  d-Phenothrin Dose Rates – Application
3.  Post-Application Scenarios
4.  Air Modeling for d-Phenothrin
5.  d-Phenothrin Dose Rates – Post Application
E.  Fly Baits
1.  Application Scenarios
2.  Post-Application Scenarios
F.   Resin Strip
1.  Application Scenarios
2.  Post-Application Scenarios
3.  Air Modeling for Dichlorvos
4.  Dichlorvos Doses – Post Application
G.  Emulsifiable Concentrates Used for Spraying
1.  Application Scenarios
2.  Post-Application Scenarios
H.  Wettable Powder Used for Spraying
1.  Application Scenarios
2.  Bendiocarb Doses – Application
3.  Post-Application Scenarios
4.  Bendiocarb Doses – Post Application
I.  Products Used for Fogging
1.  Application Scenarios
2.  Post-Application Scenarios
J.  Lindane Dust
1.  Application Scenarios
2.  Air Modeling for Lindane
3.  Lindane Doses – Application
4.  Post-Application Scenarios
 
B.4  TOXICITY ASSESSMENT
A.  Introduction
B.  Hazard Identification
C.  Dose-Response Evaluation
1.  Noncarcinogenic Effects
2.  Carcinogenic Effects
3.  Provisional Toxicity Values
 
B.5  RISK CHARACTERIZATION
A.  Introduction
B.  Noncarcinogenic Effects Based on Standard Toxicity Values
C.  Noncarcinogenic Effects Based on Other Human Benchmarks
1.  DEET
2.  Permethrin
3.  d-Phenothrin
4.  Azamethiphos
5.  Methomyl
6.  Dichlorvos
7.  Chlorpyrifos
8.  Diazinon
9.  Malathion
10.  Propoxur
11.  Bendiocarb
12.  Lindane
D.  Carcinogenic Effects
E.  Cumulative Hazards and Risks
F.  Pesticide Metabolism and Potential Cumulative Effects
G.  Potential Pesticide Interactions with Pyridostigmine Bromide
H.  Regulatory Status
I.  Uncertainty and Variability Analysis
1.  Uncertainty in the Selection of POPCs
2.  Uncertainty in the Exposure Assessment
3.  Uncertainty in the Toxicity Assessment
4.  Uncertainty in the Risk Characterization
5.  Variability
 
B.6  CONCLUSIONS FROM THE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
 
PART C – TABS
TAB C-1 – Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary
 
TAB C-2 – Bibliography
 
TAB C-3 – Pesticide Guidance, Reference Information, and Research
 
TAB C-4 – Pest Management and Operations
 
TAB C-5 – Fly Baits
 
TAB C-6 – Delousing Operations
 
TAB C-7 – Logistics
 
TAB C-8 – Human Benchmarks

END NOTES


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