Environmental Exposure Report

Particulate Matter

Final Report

October 15, 2002

Many veterans of the Gulf War have expressed concern that their unexplained illnesses may result from their experiences in that war. In response to veterans’ concerns, the Department of Defense established a task force in June 1995 to investigate those incidents and circumstances relating to possible causes. The Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses assumed responsibility for these investigations on November 12, 1996. Effective April 5, 2001, the Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness) for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military Deployments assumed continued responsibility for Gulf War issues.

Environmental Exposure reports are reports of what the Department of Defense knows today about certain events that took place during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm of 1990-1991. This particular report focuses on US personnel exposure to particulate matter and the related health effects that may be associated with this exposure. The Department published an interim report on the subject in July 2000. This is a final report because no new information has been received that would change the findings of the initial report. As always, if you believe you have information that may change this environmental exposure report, please call:

1-800-497-6261

WilliamWinkenwerder, Jr., MD
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) and
Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness)
for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness and Military Deployments
US Department of Defense
2001211-0000007 Ver 2.0

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.  OVERVIEW

II.  BACKGROUND

III.  RESULTS OF AIR QUALITY MONITORING IN THE GULF

IV.  PARTICULATE MATTER AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

V.  GENERAL HEALTH EFFECTS AND ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATES
A.  Background
B.  Mechanisms of Exposure
C.  Adverse Health Effects Associated with Particulate Matter Exposure
1.  Acute Effects
2.  Chronic Effects
D.  Particulate Matter Components of Concern
1.  Silica
2.  Soot
 
VI.  OVERVIEW OF THE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
A.  Introduction
B.  Discussion
1.  Cumulative Exposure
2.  Total Dose
C.  Findings

VII.  CONCLUSIONS

VIII.  AREAS REQUIRING FURTHER INVESTIGATION

TAB A – Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary

TAB B – Bibliography

TAB C – Changes in this report

END NOTES

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