Abbey SE, Garfinkel PE. Chronic fatigue syndrome and depression: cause, effect, or covariate. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13(suppl):73-83.

Anderson N. Chronic fatigue syndrome: distinguish between syndromes and study them separately. BMJ. 1994;308:1298.

Barofsky I, Legro MW. Definition and measurement of fatigue. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13(suppl):94-97.

Baschetti R. Viral illness and chronic fatigue (syndrome). Lancet. 1995;346:47. Letter.

Bass C, Benjamin S. Management of chronic somatisation. Br J Psychiatry. 1993;162:472-478.

Bates DW, Schmitt W, Buchwald D, et al. Prevalence of fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome in a primary care practice. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:2259-2265.

Behan PO, Bakheit AM. Clinical spectrum of postviral fatigue syndrome. Br Med Bull. 1991;47(4):793-808.

Behan P, Behan W. The postviral fatigue syndrome. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 1988;42:157-178.

Bell DS. Chronic fatigue syndrome. Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Postgrad Med. 1992;91(6):245-252.

Bergner M, Bobbitt RA, Carter WB, Gilson BS. The sickness impact profile: development and final revision of a health status measure. Med Care. 1981;XIX:787-805.

Bertolin JM, Bertolin V. Chronic fatigue syndrome-biologic and psychopathological investigations. Med Clin (Barc). 1993;101(2):67-75.

Blondel-Hill E, Shafran SD. Treatment of the chronic fatigue syndrome. A review and practical guide. Drugs. 1993;46(4):639-651.

Bond PA. A role for herpes simplex virus in the aetiology of chronic fatigue syndrome and related disorders. Med Hypotheses. 1993;40(5):301-308.

Bou-Holaigah I, Rowe PC, Kan J, Calkins H. The relationship between neurally mediated hypotension and the chronic fatigue syndrome. JAMA.

1995;274(12): 961-967. Bruce-Jones WDA, White PD, Thomas JM, Clare AW. The effect of social adversity on the fatigue syndrome, psychiatric disorders and physical recovery, following glandular fever. Psychol Med. 1994;24:651-659.

Buchwald D, Cheney PR, Peterson DL, et al. A chronic illness characterized by fatigue, neurologic and immunologic disorders, and active human herpesvirus type 6 infections. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116:103-113.

Buchwald D, Garrity D. Comparison of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and multiple chemical sensitivities. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:2049-2053.

Buchwald D, Garrity D, Pascualy R, et al. Chronic fatigue syndrome. Toxicol Ind Health. 1992;8(4):157-173.

Buchwald D, Komaroff AL. Review of laboratory findings for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13(suppl 1): 512-518.

Buchwald D, Umall P, Umall J, Kith P, Pearlman T, Komaroff A. Chronic fatigue and the chronic fatigue syndrome: prevalence in a Pacific Northwest health care system. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123(2):81-88.

Byrne E. The chronic fatigue syndrome: a reappraisal and unifying hypothesis. Clin Exp Neurol. 1991;28:128-138.

Caligiuri M, Murray C, Buchwald D, Levine H, Cheney P, Peterson D. Phenotypic and functional deficiency of natural killer cells in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Immunol. 1987;139(10):3306-3313.

Chalder T, Berelowitz G, Pawlikowska T, et al. Development of a fatigue scale. J Psychosom Res. 1993;37:147-153.

Cohen S, Tyrrell DAJ, Smith AP. Negative life events, perceived stress, negative affect and susceptibility to the common cold. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1993;64:131-140.

Cope H, David A, Mann A. "Maybe it's a virus": beliefs about viruses, symptom attributional style and psychological health. J Psychosomatic Res. 1994;38:89-98.

Cope H, David A, Pelosi A, Mann A. Predictors of chronic "postviral" fatigue. Lancet. 1994;344:864-868.

Croft P, Ridby A, Boswell R, Schollum J, Silman A. The prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population. J Rheumatol. 1993;20:710-713.

Daugherty SA, Henry BE, Peterson DL, et al. Chronic fatigue syndrome in northern Nevada. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13(suppl 1):539-544.

David A. The postviral fatigue syndrome and psychiatry. Br Med Bull. 1991;47:966-988.

David A, Cope H, Pelosi A, Mann A. Viral illness and chronic fatigue (syndrome). Lancet. 1995;346:47. Letter.

David A, Pelosi A, McDonald E, et al. Tired, weak or in need of rest: fatigue among general practice attenders. BMJ. 1990;301:1199-1202.

David A, Pelosi A, Wessely S. The chronic fatigue syndrome ("ME"): signs of a new approach. Br J Hosp Med. 1991;45:158-163.

David A, Wessely S. Chronic fatigue, ME, and ICD-10. Lancet. 1993;342:1247-1248.

David A, Wessely S, Pelosi A. Postviral fatigue syndrome: time for a new approach. BMJ. 1988;296:696-699.

Dodge JH, Kita MW. The chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Int Med. 1995;123(1):75. Letter.

Evans AS. Chronic fatigue syndrome: thoughts on pathogenesis. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13(suppl 1):556-559.

Fark AR. Infectious mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr virus, and chronic fatigue syndrome: a prospective case series. J Fam Pract. 1991;32(2):202-209.

Fukuda K, Strauss SE. The chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Int Med. 1995;123(1):76. Response.

Fukuda K, Strauss SE, Hickie I, et al. The chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and study. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121:953-959.

Galbraith DN, Nairn C, Clements GB. Phylogenetic analysis of short enteroviral sequences from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of General Virology. 1995;76:1701-1707.

Goldenberg DL. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, and myofascial pain syndromes. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1992;4(2):247-257.

Gow JW, Behan WMH, Clements GB, et al. Enteroviral RNA sequences detected by PCR in muscle of patients with postviral fatigue syndrome. BMJ. 1991;302:692-696.

Gow JW, Behan WMH, Simpson K, et al. Studies on enterovirus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. January 18, 1994;(suppl 1):126-129.

Gow JW, Simpson K, Schliephake A, et al. Search for retrovirus in chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Pathol. 1992;45:1058-1061.

Greenberg DB. Neurasthenia in the 1980s: chronic mononucleosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and anxiety and depressive disorders. Psychosomatics. 1990;31(2):129-137.

Grufferman S. Issues and problems in the conduct of epidemiologic research on chronic fatigue syndrome. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13(suppl):60-67.

Gunn JW, Connell DB, Randall B. Epidemiology of chronic fatigue syndrome: the Centers for Disease Control study. In: Buck G, Whelan J, eds. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. New York: Wiley; 1993:83-101.

Hansen V, Jacobsen BK. Mental distress and social conditions and lifestyle in northern Norway. BMJ. 1989;299:85-88.

Harvey WT. A flight surgeon's personal view of an emerging illness. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1989;60(12):1199-1201.

Henderson DA. Reflections on epidemic neuromyasthenia (chronic fatigue syndrome). Clin Infect Dis. 1994;18(suppl):S3-S6.

Holmes GP. The chronic fatigue syndrome. In: Schlossberg D, ed. Infectious Mononucleosis. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1989:172-93.

Holmes GP, Kaplan JE, Guntz NM, et al. Chronic fatigue syndrome: a working case definition. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108:387-389.

Holmes GP, Kaplan JE, Schonberger LB, et al. Definition of the chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1988;109:512. Letter.

Imboden J, Canter A, Cluff L. Convalescence from influenza: a study of the psychological and clinical determinants. Arch Intern Med. 1961;108:115-121.

Jamal GA, Hansen S, Apartopoulos F, Peden A. The "Gulf War syndrome". Is there evidence of dysfunction in the nervous system? J Neurol Nuerosurg Psychiatry. 1996;60:449-451.

Jamal GA, Miller RG. Neurophysiology of postviral fatigue syndrome. Br Med Bull. 1991;47(4):815-825.

James DG, Brook MG, Bannister BA. The chronic fatigue syndrome. Postgrad Med J. 1992;68(802):611-614.

Jones JF. Epstein-Barr virus and the chronic fatigue syndrome: a short review. Microbiol Sci. 1988;5(12):366-369.

Jones JF. Serologic and immunologic responses in chronic fatigue syndrome with emphasis on the Epstein-Barr virus. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13(suppl 1):526S-531S.

Katon WJ, Buchwald DS, Simon GE, et al. Psychiatric illness in patients with chronic fatigue and rheumatoid arthritis. J Gen Intern Med. 1991;6:227-285.

Katon W, Russo J. Chronic fatigue syndrome criteria: a critique of the requirement for multiple physical complaints. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:1604-1609.

Klonoff DC. Chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;15:812-823.

Komaroff A, Buchwald D. Symptoms and signs in chronic fatigue syndrome. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13(suppl):8-11.

Komaroff AL. Clinical presentation of chronic fatigue syndrome. Ciba Found Symp. 1993;173:43-54.

Krilov LR. Chronic fatigue syndrome. Pediatric Annals. 1995;24(6):290-292, 294.

Kroenke K. Chronic fatigue: frequency, causes, evaluation, and management. Compr Ther. 1989;15:3-7.

Kroenke K, Wood DR, Mangelsdorff AD, Meier NJ, Powell JB. Chronic fatigue in primary care: prevalence, patient characteristics, and outcome. JAMA. 1988;206:929-934.

Kruesi MJ, Dale J, Straus SE. Psychiatric diagnoses in patients who have chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry. 1989;50:53-56.

Krupp LB, LaRocca NG, Muir-Nash J, Steinberg AD. The fatigue severity scale: application to patients with multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosia. Arch Neurol. 1989;46:1121-1123.

Krupp LB, Mendelson WB, Friedman R. An overview of chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry. 1991;52:403-410.

Kutemeyer M. Chronic fatigue syndrome-new clinical diagnosis. Nervenarzt. 1991;62(1):64-66.

Landay AL, Jessop C, Lennette ET, Levy JA. Chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical condition associated with immune activation. Lancet. 1991;338:707-712.

Lane TJ, Matthews DA, Manu P. The low yield of physical examination and laboratory investigations of patients with chronic fatigue. Am J Med Sci. 1990;299:313-318.

Lapp CW, Cheney PR. The chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Int Med. 1995;123(1):74-75. Letter.

Lawrie SM, Pelosi AJ. Chronic fatigue syndrome in the community: prevalence and associations. Br J Psychiatry. 1995;166:793-797.

Levine PH, Jacobson S, Pocinki AG, et al. Clinical, epidemiologic, and virologic studies in four clusters of the chronic fatigue syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:1611-1616.

Lewis G, Wessely S. The epidemiology of fatigue: more questions than answers. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1992;46:92-97.

Lloyd AR, Hickie I, Boughton CR, Spencer O, Wakefield D. Prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome in an Australian population. Med J Aust. 1990;153:522-528.

Macintyre A. Viral illness and chronic fatigue (syndrome). Lancet. 1995;346:47. Letter.

Mant D. Chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet. 1994;344:834-835. Letter.

Manu P, Lane TJ, Matthews DA. Somatization disorder in patients with chronic fatigue. Psychosomatics. 1989;30:388-395.

Manu P, Matthews DA, Lane TJ. The mental health of patients with a chief complaint of chronic fatigue: a prospective evaluation and follow-up. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:2213-2217.

Manu P, Matthews DA, Lane TJ. Panic disorder among patients with chronic fatigue. South Med J. 1991;84:451-456.

Matthews DA, Lane TJ, Manu P. Definition of the chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1988;109:511-512. Letter.

Mawle AC, Reyes M, Schmid DS. Is chronic fatigue syndrome an infectious disease? Infect Agents Dis. 1994;2:333-341.

McDonald E, David A, Pelosi A, et al. Chronic fatigue in general practice attenders. Psychol Med. 1993;23:987-988.

Miller NA, Carmichael HA, Calder BD, et al. Antibody to coxsackie B virus in diagnosing postviral fatigue syndrome. BMJ. 1991;302:140-143.

Moldofsky H. Fibromyalgia, sleep disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome. Ciba Found Symp. 1993;173:262-271.

Nixon PG. The grey area of effort syndrome and hyperventilation: from Thomas Lewis to today. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1993;27(4):377-383.

Pawlikowska T, Chalder T, Hirsch SR, Wallace P, Wright DJ, Wessely SC. Population based study of fatigue and psychological distress. BMJ. 1994;308:763-766.

Peterson PK, Schenck CH, Sherman R. Chronic fatigue syndrome in Minnesota. Minn Med. 1991;74:21-26.

Piper BF, Lindsey AM, Dodd MJ, Perketich S, Paul SM, Weller S. The development of an instrument to measure the subjective dimension of fatigue. In: Funk SG, Tournquist PM, Campagne MT, Archer Gopp L, Wiese RA, eds. Key Aspects of Comfort: Management of Pain, Fatigue and Nausea. New York, Ny: Springer; 1989:199-208.

Powell R, Dolan R, Wessely S. Attributions and self-esteem in depression and chronic fatigue syndromes. J Psychosom Res. 1990;34:665-673.

Price RK, North CS, Wessely S, Frazer VJ. Estimating the prevelance of chronic fatigue syndrome and associated symptoms in the community. Public Health Rep. 1992;107:514-522.

Prince K. Chronic fatigue syndrome: keep an open mind. BMJ. 1994;308:1300.

Ramsay M. Postviral Fatigue Syndrome: The Saga of Royal Free Disease. London, Eng: Gower Medical; 1986.

Reinberg AE, Bicakova-Rocher A, Gorceix A, Ashkenazi IE, Smolensky MH. Placebo effect on the circadian rhythm period of temperature and hand-grip strength rhythms: interindividual and gender-related difference. Chronobiology International. 1994;11(1): 45-53.

Rest J. The chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Int Med. 1995;123(1):75. Letter.

Ridsdale L, Evans A, Jerrett W, et al. Patients with fatigue in general practice: a prospective study. BMJ. 1993;307:103-106.

Robbins JM, Kirmayer LJ. Attributions of common somatic symptoms. Psychol Med. 1991;21:1029-1045.

Robins LN, Helzer JE, Croughan J, Ratcliff KS. National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: its history, characteristics, and validity. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1981;38:381-389.

Robins LN, Wing J, Wittchen HU, et al. The Composite International Interview: an epidemiologic instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45:1069-1077.

Rotheram EB Jr. The chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Int Med. 1995;123(1):75. Letter.

Rutherford OM, White PD. Human quadriceps strength and fatiguability in patients with post viral fatigue. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1991;54:961-964.

Schluederberg A, Straus SE, Peterson P, et al. Chronic fatigue syndrome research: definition and medical outcome assessment. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117:325-331.

Schmidt P, Blanck RM. Gulf War Syndrome and CFS. CFIDS Chron. 1995;8:25-27.

Schwartz JE, Jandorf L, Krupp LB. The measurement of fatigue: a new instrument. J Psychosom Res. 1993;37:753-762.

Shafran SD. The chronic fatigue syndrome. Am J Med. 1991;90:730-739.

Sharpe MC, Archard LC, Banatvala JE, et al. A report-chronic fatigue syndrome: guidelines for research. J R Soc Med. 1991;84:118-121.

Sharpe M, Hawton K, Seagroatt V, Pasvol G. Follow-up of patients presenting with fatigue to an infectious disease clinic. BMJ. 1992;305:147-152.

Shave DW. A flight surgeon's personal view of an emerging illness. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1990;61(5):443-444. Letter.

Shepherd C. Viral illness and chronic fatigue (syndrome). Lancet. 1995;346:47-48. Letter.

Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Gibbon M, First MB. The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). I: History, rationale, and description. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49:624-629.

Straus SE. Defining the chronic fatigue syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:1569-1570. Editorial.

Straus S, Tosato G, Armstrong G, et al. Persisting illness and fatigue in adults with evidence of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Ann Intern Med. 1985;102:7-16.

Sumaya CV. Serologic and virologic epidemiology and Epstein-Barr virus: relevance to chronic fatigue syndrome. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13(suppl 1): 519-525.

Swartz MN. The chronic fatigue syndrome-one entity or many? N Engl J Med. 1988;319:1726-1728.

Tannock C, Costa DC, Brostoff J. Chronic fatigue syndrome: preliminary report misrepresented. BMJ. 1994;308:1300.

Thomas PK. The chronic fatigue syndrome: what do we know? BMJ. 1993;306:1557-1558.

Vercoulen JH, Swanink CM, Fennis JF, Galama JM, van der Muer JW, Bleijenberg G. Dimensional assessment of chronic fatigue syndrome. J Psychosom Res. 1994;38:383-392.

Walker EA, Katon WJ, Jemelka RP. Psychiatric disorders and medical care utilization among people in the general population who report fatigue. J Gen Intern Med. 1993;8:436-440.

Ware JE Jr, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): L conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care. 1992;30:473-483.

Ware NC, Kleinman A. Culture and somatic experience: the social course of illness in neurasthenia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychosom Med. 1992;54(5):546-560.

Welch JC. Chronic fatigue syndrome and liquorice. N Z Med J. 1995;June 14:234-235. Letter.

Wessely S. Old wine in new bottles: neurasthenia and "ME." Psychol Med. 1990;20:35-53.

Wessely S. History of the postviral fatigue syndrome. Br Med Bull. 1991;47:919-941.

Wessely S. The epidemiology of chronic fatigue syndrome. Epidemiol Rev. 1995;17(1):139-151.

Wessely S, Chalder T, Hirsch S, Pawlikowska T, Wallace P, Wright DJM. Postinfectious fatigue: prospective cohort study in primary care. Lancet. 1995;345:1333-1338.

Wessely S, Powell R. Fatigue syndromes: a comparison of chronic postviral fatigue with neuromuscular and affective disorders. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989;52:940-948.

Wilson A, Hickie I, Lloyd A, Wakefield D. The treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome: science and speculation. Am J Med. 1994;96:544-550.

Wilson A, Hickie I, Lloyd A, et al. Longitudinal study of outcome of chronic fatigue syndrome. BMJ. 1994;308:756-759.

Wood GC, Bentall RP, Gopfert M, et al. A comparative psychiatric assessment of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and neuromuscular disease. Psychol Med. 1991;21:619-628.

Wookey C. Viral illness and chronic fatigue (syndrome). Lancet. 1995;346:48. Letter.

Zajdowicz TR. Chronic fatigue syndrome and military service. Mil Med. 1992;157(9):A3-A4. Letter.

Table of Contents