END NOTES

[1] Tab A lists acronyms, abbreviations and glossary terms.

[2] The Intelligence Community comprises the Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Bureau of Intelligence and Research (Department of State), National Security Agency, National Imagery and Mapping Agency, military services' intelligence staffs and centers, and several other organizations within the Departments of Defense, Treasury, Justice, and Energy. Intelligence related to military efforts includes information at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels.

[3] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 3.

[4] Database Query Log, Gulf War Air Planning Staff, undated (declassified on March 24, 1997).

[5] Basic Target Graphic, Tall al Lahm Ammunition Storage Area, US Air Force, September 1990.

[6] Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, "Tallil Air Base, Iraq, Final Report," (Case Narrative), May 25, 2000, web site www.gulflink.osd.mil/tallil_ii/.

[7] Walpole, Robert D, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, Central Intelligence Agency, "17 Suspect CW/BW Storage Sites Identified in 28 February 1991 CENTCOM Message," July 29-30, 1997, p. 10.

[8] Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, "An Nasiriyah Southwest Ammunition Storage Point, Final Report" (Case Narrative), September 28, 2000, web site www.gulflink.osd.mil/an_iii/.

[9] Defense Mapping Agency, "Gazetteer of Iraq," Washington, DC, Third Edition, August 1990, p. 275.

[10] Walpole, Robert D, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, Central Intelligence Agency, "17 Suspect CW/BW Storage Sites Identified in 28 February 1991 CENTCOM Message," July 29-30, 1997, p. 9.

[11] XVIII Airborne Corps, Tactical Operations Center Journal, 12 0720 MAR 91.

[12] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 3-6.

[13] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 5. Although translated differently, the terms "grenade" and "bombs" both refer to artillery shells.

[14] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 5.

[15] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 5.

[16] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 6.

[17] Department of Defense, Final Report to Congress, "Conduct of the Persian Gulf War," April 1992, p. 234.

[18] Transcript, Fort Leavenworth Press Conference: "Gulf War Illnesses - Khamisiyah," November 15, 1996, p. 20.

[19] Department of Defense, Final Report to Congress, "Conduct of the Persian Gulf War," April 1992, Appendix Q, p. 639.

[20] Department of Defense, Final Report to Congress, "Conduct of the Persian Gulf War," April 1992, p. 641.

[21] XVIII Airborne Corps, Message, Subject: "Forces Capabilities in a Chemical Environment," 221455Z DEC 90.

[22] Joint Staff, Message, Subject: "IIR 6 021 0020 92/UNSCOM 20 (CW6) Inspection Results of Khamisiyah Ammunition Storage Facility," 121212Z NOV 91.

[23] Defense Intelligence Agency, Message, Subject: "Iraqi Fallujah, Khamisiyah, and An-Nasiriyah Chemical Warfare Related Sites," May 1996 [redacted].

[24] Database Query Log, Gulf War Air Planning Staff, undated (declassified on March 24, 1997); United Kingdom Minister of Defence, Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Unit facsimile [Restricted], Subject: "Draft OSAGWI Case Narrative Khamisiyah."

[25] Transcript, Fort Leavenworth Press Conference: "Gulf War Illnesses - Khamisiyah," November 15, 1996, p. 16.

[26] Commander, US Army Central Command, Message, Subject: "COMUSARCENT Planning Guidance," 140900Z FEB 91.

[27] Defense Intelligence Agency, Message, Subject: "IIR 6 021 0196 96/Iraqi Fallujah, Khamisiyah, and An-Nasiriyah Chemical Warfare Related Sites," May 1996 [redacted], p. 3.

[28] Joint Staff, Message, Subject: "IIR 6 021 0020 92/UNSCOM 20 (CW6) Inspection Results of Khamisiyah Ammunition Storage Facility," 121212Z NOV 91.

[29] XVIII Airborne Corps, Message, Subject: "Request for Technical Assistance," 181030Z FEB 91.

[30] XVIII Airborne Corps, Handbook, Subject: "Demilitarization of Iraqi Equipment," February 20, 1991.

[31] Lead Report 6664, Interview of XVIII Airborne Corps plans officer, October 30, 1997.

[32] XVIII Airborne Corps, Handbook, Subject: "Demilitarization of Iraqi Equipment," February 20, 1991, p. 12-13.

[33] XVIII Airborne Corps, Handbook, Subject: "Demilitarization of Iraqi Equipment," February 20, 1991, p. 14.

[34] Transcript of Proceedings, "Interviews Concerning Activities at Khamisiyah, Iraq in March 1991," Conducted by the Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 6, 1997, p. 153-154.

[35] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 6.

[36] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 6.

[37] Commander, US Army Central Command, Message, Subject: "Captured or Abandoned Chem/Bio Munitions," 232020Z FEB 91.

[38] XVIII Airborne Corps, "Desert Shield Chronology for February 1991," 231630Z February 1991 entry.

[39] US Commander-In-Chief Central Command, Message, Subject: "Commander's Guidance for Disposition of Captured Chemical and Biological Munitions," 241200Z FEB 91.

[40] Lead Report 18591, Interview of US Central Command plans staff officer, August 17, 1998.

[41] US Central Command, Staff summary sheet with supporting Bullet paper, Subject: "Commander's Guidance for Disposition of Captured Chemical and Biological Munitions," February 23, 1991.

[42] Commander, US Army Central Command, Operations Plan, "The Defense and Restoration of Kuwait, ANNEX V: Explosive Ordnance Disposal Support Plan," February 25, 1991.

[43] XVIII Airborne Corps, Handwritten action message form, February 26, 1991; XVIII Airborne Corps, Tactical Operations Center log, February 26, 1991.

[44] Lead Report 6662, Interview of XVIII Airborne Corps operations officer, October 30, 1997.

[45] Joint Surveillance and Target Attack System is an aircraft with a radar onboard that can detect moving vehicles on the ground from very long distances.

[46] Scales, Brigadier General Robert H., Certain Victory, Washington: Office of the Chief of Staff, US Army, 1993, p. 257-259.

[47] Lead Report 6670, Interview of commander, 4-64 Armor, October 31, 1997.

[48] Scales, Brigadier General Robert H., Certain Victory, Washington: Office of the Chief of Staff, US Army, 1993, p. 257-259.

[49] XVIII Airborne Corps, Message, Subject: "Captured Chemical and Biological Munitions," 270845Z FEB 91.

[50] XVIII Airborne Corps, Message, Subject: "FRAGO 74 to XVIII Airborne Corps Operations Order Desert Storm," 271830Z FEB 91.

[51] XVIII Airborne Corps, Situation Report, 282200Z FEB 91.

[52] XVIII Airborne Corps, Message, Subject: "FRAGO 78 to XVIII Airborne Corps Operations Order Desert Storm," February 28, 1991.

[53] XVIII Airborne Corps, Message, Subject: "Chem Munition Marking Colors," 280700Z FEB 91.

[54] 20th Engineer Brigade, Message, Subject: "Markings on Chemical Munitions," 280900Z FEB 91.

[55] US Central Command, Message, Subject: "Suspected Chemical/Biological Weapons Storage Sites in the KTO Prior to the Ground War," 281800Z FEB 91.

[56] Lead Report 25537, Interview of US Central Command current order of battle analyst, December 9, 1999.

[57] Lead Report 25537, Interview of US Central Command current order of battle analyst, December 9, 1999.

[58] United Nations, United Nations Special Commission, press release on Chemical Weapons Destruction, April 26, 1992, p. 1.

[59] Walpole, Robert D, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, Central Intelligence Agency, "17 Suspect CW/BW Storage Sites Identified in 28 February 1991 CENTCOM Message," July 29-30, 1997.

[60] Defense Intelligence Agency, Message, Subject: "Response to Iraqi Storage bunkers (Addendum)," February 1991 [redacted].

[61] Lead Report 1094, Interviews of 37th Engineer Battalion chemical noncommissioned officer, June 3, 1996, p. 2.

[62] Lead Report 1098, Interview of commander, Company B, 37th Engineer Battalion, July 2, 1996; and Lead Report 6931, Interview of commander, Company B, 37th Engineer Battalion, November 7, 1997.

[63] 82nd Airborne Division engineer, Message, Subject: "307th Engineer Battalion Operations Summary," 230600Z MAR 91.

[64] 60th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Detachment Incident Journal (Desert Storm), April 1, 1991.

[65] 82nd Airborne Division chemical officer's handwritten message, 230900C MAR 91.

[66] XVIII Airborne Corps, Message, Subject: "FRAGO 81 to XVIII Airborne Corps Operations Order Desert Storm," March 1991.

[67] 20th Engineer Brigade, Message, Subject: "FRAGO 27 to 20th Eng Bde OPLAN Desert Storm," 012330C MAR 91.

[68] 937th Engineer Group, Message, Subject: "ENSITREP," 030606Z MAR 91.

[69] Transcript of Proceedings, "Interviews Concerning Activities at Khamisiyah, Iraq in March 1991," Conducted by the Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 6, 1997, p. 34.

[70] XVIII Airborne Corps, Situation Report, 022200Z MAR 91, p. 3-4, 8.

[71] Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, "Reported Mustard Agent Exposure Operation Desert Storm," (Case Narrative), July 12, 2001, web site www.gulflink.osd.mil/fisher_final/.

[72] XVIII Airborne Corps, Message, Subject: "Suspected Chemical Agent Contamination," 031015Z FEB 91.

[73] 37th Engineer Battalion, Log, February 24 to March 10, 1991.

[74] Lead Report 843, Interview of 37th Engineer Battalion first sergeant, July 12, 1996.

[75] Lead Report 1094, Interviews of 37th Engineer Battalion chemical noncommissioned officer, June 3, 1996, p. 3.

[76] US Army Field Manual 3-4, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-9, "NBC Protection," May 1992, chapter 2, p. 3 - 6.  Mission Oriented Protective Posture ensemble is worn at certain levels, from 0 (equipment available) to 4 (mask with hood, Battle Dress Overgarment, overshoes, and butyl rubber gloves).

[77] 37th Engineer Battalion, Log, February 24 to March 10, 1991.

[78] Joint Staff, Message, Subject:, "IIR 6 021 0020 92/UNSCOM 20 (CW6) Inspection Results of Khamisiyah Ammunition Storage Facility," 121212Z NOV 91.

[79] 37th Engineer Battalion, Log, February 24 to March 10, 1991.

[80] Transcript, Fort Leavenworth Press Conference: "Gulf War Illnesses - Khamisiyah," November 15, 1996, p. 5.

[81] Transcript of Proceedings, "Interviews Concerning Activities at Khamisiyah, Iraq in March 1991," Conducted by the Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 6, 1997, p. 165.

[82] Lead Report 11260, Interview of 60th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Detachment executive officer, December 20, 1997.

[83] Department of the Army Inspector General, "Inquiry into the Demolition of Iraq Ammunition," October 10, 1997, p. 3-1.

[84] Statement on CBS Evening News, Major Huber, February 12, 1997.

[85] Lead Report 11262, Interview of Company A, 37th Engineer Battalion platoon sergeant, December 19, 1997.

[86] Central Intelligence Agency, Working paper, Subject: "Possible Chemical Warfare Exposure," 1992.

[87] Lead Report 822, Interview of 37th Engineer Battalion executive officer, July 5, 1996.

[88] VII Corps, Message, Subject: "Response to [Redacted], Suspected Chem/Bio Weapons Storage Sites in KTO Prior to the Ground War," April 1, 1991.

[89] 37th Engineer Battalion, Videotape, March 4, 1991. Portions of this video were shown on Cable News Network.

[90] Lead Report 1223, Interview of 37th Engineer Battalion noncommissioned officer, August 8, 1996. Reports indicate fragments fell in the area for 5 to 30 minutes, and secondary explosions of munitions continued for 24 hours.

[91] Transcript, Fort Leavenworth Press Conference: "Gulf War Illnesses - Khamisiyah," November 15, 1996, p. 26-27.

[92] Transcript, Fort Leavenworth Press Conference: "Gulf War Illnesses - Khamisiyah," November 15, 1996, p. 13-14.

[93] Lead Report 1077, Interview of 60th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Detachment noncommissioned officer, October 23, 1996.

[94] Transcript, Fort Leavenworth Press Conference: "Gulf War Illnesses - Khamisiyah," November 15, 1996, p. 14.

[95] Lead Report 1077, Interview of 60th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Detachment noncommissioned officer, October 23, 1996.

[96] Lead Report 825, Interview of Company B, 37th Engineer Battalion chemical noncommissioned officer, June 30, 1996.

[97] Lead Report 832, Interview of commander, Company B, 37th Engineer Battalion, June 28, 1996.

[98] Lead Report 909, Interview of Company A, 37th Engineer Battalion chemical noncommissioned officer, September 12, 1996.

[99] Lead Report 857, Interview of 37th Engineer Battalion intelligence staff noncommissioned officer, July 2, 1996.

[100] Lead Report 6930, Interview of 37th Engineer Battalion intelligence staff specialist, November 7, 1997.

[101] Lead Report 909, Interview of Company A, 37th Engineer Battalion chemical noncommissioned officer, September 12, 1996.

[102] 37th Engineer Battalion, Log, February 24 to March 10, 1991.

[103] Transcript, Fort Leavenworth Press Conference: "Gulf War Illnesses - Khamisiyah," November 15, 1996, p. 15-16. This unit, along with another team from the 60th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Detachment, arrived at Khamisiyah on March 4, 1991.

[104] XVIII Airborne Corps, Situation Report, 052200Z MAR 91, p. 4.

[105] Transcript, Fort Leavenworth Press Conference: "Gulf War Illnesses - Khamisiyah," November 15, 1996, p. 26-27.

[106] Lead Report 1266, Interview of commander, Company A, 307th Engineer Battalion, January 27, 1997.

[107] 37th Engineer Battalion, Mission update, March 1991.

[108] Transcript, Fort Leavenworth Press Conference: "Gulf War Illnesses - Khamisiyah," November 15, 1996, p. 9, 29.

[109] Transcript of Proceedings, "Interviews Concerning Activities at Khamisiyah, Iraq in March 1991," Conducted by the Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 6, 1997, p. 89-90.

[110] Lead Report 1053, Interview of 37th Engineer Battalion operations officer, August 20, 1996.

[111] Lead Report 1221, Interview of 307th Engineer Battalion liaison officer, September 17, 1996.

[112] Lead Report 1077, Interview of 60th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Detachment noncommissioned officer, October 23, 1996.

[113] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit," September 4, 1997, p. 4.

[114] Lead Report 857, Interview of 37th Engineer Battalion intelligence staff noncommissioned officer, July 2, 1996.

[115] Joint Staff, Message, Subject: "IIR 6 021 0020 92/UNSCOM 20 (CW6) Inspection Results of Khamisiyah Ammunition Storage Facility," 121212Z NOV 91.

[116] 37th Engineer Battalion, Log, February 24 to March 10, 1991.

[117] Bunkers filled with small caliber ammunition could not be destroyed with explosives, but had to be destroyed by burning them with large quantities of fuel. Transcript of Proceedings, "Interviews Concerning Activities at Khamisiyah, Iraq in March 1991," Conducted by the Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 6, 1997, p. 150.

[118] Transcript, Fort Leavenworth Press Conference: "Gulf War Illnesses - Khamisiyah," November 15, 1996, p. 15-16.

[119] Lead Report 6652, Interview of 60th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Detachment executive officer, October 24, 1997.

[120] Lead Report 6652, Interview of 60th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Detachment executive officer, October 24, 1997.

[121] Lead Report 6930, Interview of 37th Engineer Battalion intelligence staff specialist, November 7, 1997.

[122] Lead Report 1077, Interview of 60th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Detachment noncommissioned officer, October 23, 1996.

[123] Lead Report 857, Interview of 37th Engineer Battalion intelligence staff noncommissioned officer, September 17,  1996.

[124] 37th Engineer Battalion, Log, February 24 to March 10, 1991.

[125] 60th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Detachment Incident Journal (Desert Storm), April 1, 1991.

[126] Transcript of Proceedings, Interviews, "Demolition at Khamisiyah," Conducted by the Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, April 10, 1997, p. 65, 92, 99-100, 102.

[127] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit," September 4, 1997, p. 6-8.

[128] 37th Engineer Battalion, Log, February 24 to March 10, 1991.

[129] XVIII Airborne Corps, Tactical Operations Center Journal, 12 0720 MAR 91.

[130] Transcript of Proceedings, "Interviews Concerning Activities at Khamisiyah, Iraq in March 1991," Conducted by the Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 6, 1997, p. 112-114.

[131] Lead Report 6665, Interview of 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment operations center action officer, October 30, 1997.

[132] 82nd Airborne Division chemical officer's handwritten message, 230900C MAR 91.

[133] Lead Report 6665, Interview of 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment operations center action officer, October 30, 1997.

[134] Transcript of Proceedings, "Interviews Concerning Activities at Khamisiyah, Iraq in March 1991," Conducted by the Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 6, 1997, p. 166.

[135] Memorandum from 307th Engineer Battalion operations officer to 82nd Airborne Division commander, Subject: "307th Engineer Battalion Desert Storm Narrative," June 3, 1991.

[136] VII Corps, Message, Subject: "FRAGO 189-91," 271500C MAR 91.

[137] Lead Report 6665, Interview of 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment operations center action  officer, October 30, 1997.

[138] Lead Report 6665, Interview of 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment operations center action officer, October 30, 1997.

[139] VII Corps, Tactical Command Post Journal, 28 MAR 91.

[140] 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Tactical Command Post Journal, 28 MAR 91.

[141] VII Corps, Message, Subject: "Response to [Redacted], Suspected Chem/Bio Weapons Storage Sites in KTO Prior to the Ground War," April 1, 1991.

[142] US Central Command, Message, Subject: "Suspected Chemical/Biological Weapons Storage Sites in the KTO Prior to the Ground War," 281800Z FEB 91.

[143] 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment,  "War Stories: Oral History," undated, date received July 6, 1996.

[144] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 8.

[145] Lead Report 6663, Interview of commander, 84th Engineer Company, October 30, 1997.

[146] Statement by commander, 307th Medical Battalion, September 8, 1996.

[147] Department of the Army Inspector General, "Inquiry Into the Demolition of Iraq Ammunition," October 10, 1997, p. 3-11.

[148] United Nations, Security Council Resolution 687, New York, NY: United Nations, April 3, 1991, p. 3-4.

[149] Message (redacted), Subject: "Iraqi Declaration," undated, p. 3.

[150] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 5.

[151] Central Intelligence Agency, Message, Subject: "First Identification of Tall al Lahm, 1976," [redacted].

[152] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 3.

[153] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 8.

[154] Central Intelligence Agency, "CIA Report on Intelligence Related to Gulf War Illnesses," August 2, 1996, p. 2.

[155] Joint Staff, Message, Subject: "IIR 6 021 0020 92/UNSCOM 20 (CW6) Inspection Results of Khamisiyah Ammunition Storage Facility," 121212Z NOV 91.

[156] United Nations, United Nations Special Commission, Extract, Subject: "Site Descriptions from UNSCOM 20 Inspection Report," November 13, 1991, p. 3.

[157] Central Intelligence Agency, "Memorandum of Phone Call," November 15, 1991.

[158] Central Intelligence Agency, Message, Subject: "ACIS on Facility Identification and Tasking," November 15, 1991.

[159] Joint Staff, Message, Subject: "IIR 6 021 0020 92/UNSCOM 20 (CW6) Inspection Results of Khamisiyah Ammunition Storage Facility," 121212Z NOV 91.

[160] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 11.

[161] Central Intelligence Agency, Memorandum, Subject: "Record of Phone Call, November 20, 1991," [redacted], p. 1.

[162] Central Intelligence Agency, Message, Subject: "Info on Tall al Lahm Ammo," November 20, 1991, p. 1.

[163] Memorandum for Record, "Summary of Telephonic Interviews of 24th ID G2 Personnel," February 24, 1997.

[164] United Nations, United Nations Special Commission, press release: "UNSCOM Press Statement on Chemical Weapons Destruction," April 1, 1992, p. 1.

[165] Intelligence Information Report 6 021 0099 92 (redacted), Subject: "Chemical Rocket Destruction in Khamisiyah," June 1992.

[166] Message (redacted), Subject: "UNSCOM Member Questions About Coalition Activity," April 1, 1992, p. 2.

[167] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Khamisiyah: A Historical Perspective on Related Intelligence," April 9, 1997, p. 11.

[168] Central Intelligence Agency, Working paper, Subject: "Possible Chemical Warfare Exposure," 1992, p. 2.

[169] Institute of Medicine, "Health Consequences of Service During the Persian Gulf War: Initial Findings and Recommendations for Immediate Action," National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1995, Appendix F, p. 89.

[170] United Nations, United Nations Special Commission, Letter responding to Congressman Browder's request, April 5, 1994.

[171] Congressional Record, Hearing before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, United States Senate, "United States Chemical and Biological Warfare Related Dual-Use Exports to Iraq and their Possible Impact on the Health Consequences of the Persian Gulf War," May 25, 1994, p. 16.

[172] Congressional Record, Hearing before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, United States Senate, "United States Chemical and Biological Warfare Related Dual-Use Exports to Iraq and their Possible Impact on the Health Consequences of the Persian Gulf War," May 25, 1994, p.53. (NOTE: The testimony as printed attributed these remarks to Dr. Prociv, but according to the DIA, Dr. Kriese actually made them.)

[173] Congressional Record, Hearing before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, United States Senate, "United States Chemical and Biological Warfare Related Dual-Use Exports to Iraq and their Possible Impact on the Health Consequences of the Persian Gulf War," May 25, 1994, p. 111.

[174] Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Persian Gulf War Health Effects, June 1994, p. 31-32.

[175] Office of the Secretary of Defense, news release, Subject: "President Expands Commitment to Persian Gulf Vets and DoD's Multimillion Dollar Research and Care Effort," March 9, 1995.

[176] Central Intelligence Agency Executive Director, "CIA Chronology of Khamisiyah Events," p. 1-2.

[177] Office of the Secretary of Defense, news release, Subject: "Toll-Free Gulf War Incident-Reporting Telephone Line Opened," May 24, 1995.

[178] Office of the Secretary of Defense, News release, Subject: "Department of Defense Gulf War Documents Disclosed Via 'GulfLINK' Internet Homepage," August 3, 1995.

[179] Central Intelligence Agency, internal memorandum, Subject: "Request for Information to Support Desert Storm Fallout Study," September 13, 1995.

[180] The ESG, now the US Armed Services Center for Unit Records Research (USASCURR), unit locator database incorporates all available coordinates (both latitude and longitude and universal transverse mercator indices) derived from unit logs, situation reports, etc.

[181] Central Intelligence Agency, Briefing to National Security Council, Subject: "Study of Potential Exposures," January 26, 1996.

[182] Computer modeling is the science and art of using interconnected mathematical equations to describe the activities of an actual event, in this case the direction and extent of the hazard area of chemical agent resulting from demolition activities in March 1991. In modeling Khamisiyah, the Central Intelligence Agency used available data, such as number of rockets and weather, to develop a best estimate of the extent of the hazard area.

[183] Central Intelligence Agency, Executive Director news briefing, Subject: "Persian Gulf Veterans Illnesses," November 1, 1996, p. 3.

[184] Institute for Defense Analyses, "Report of the Panel Reviewing Analysis of the Khamisiyah Pit Release of Nerve Agent," July 9, 1997.

[185] Defense Intelligence Agency, Message, Subject: "IIR 6 021 0196 96/Iraqi Fallujah, Khamisiyah, and An-Nasiriyah Chemical Warfare Related Sites," May 1996 [redacted], p. 2.

[186] Office of the Secretary of Defense, News briefing by Kenneth Bacon and Dr. Stephen Joseph, June 21, 1996, p. 1.

[187] Central Intelligence Agency, "CIA Report on Intelligence Related to Gulf War Illnesses," August 2, 1996, p. 4.

[188] Office of the Secretary of Defense, News release, Subject: "Deputy Secretary of Defense Broadens DoD Investigative Actions on Persian Gulf Veterans Illnesses," September 25, 1996.

[189] Office of the Secretary of Defense, News briefing, Subject: "Gulf War Illness," October 2, 1996.

[190] Office of the Secretary of Defense, News release, Subject: "DoD Expands Outreach to and Seeks Help From Gulf War Veterans," October 22, 1996.

[191] Office of the Secretary of Defense, News briefing, Subject: "Gulf War Illness," October 2, 1996.

[192] Office of the Secretary of Defense, News release, Subject: "Pentagon Receives Computer Modeling Progress Report," December 20, 1996.

[193] Institute for Defense Analyses, "Report of the Panel Reviewing Analysis of the Khamisiyah Pit Release of Nerve Agent," July 9, 1997.

[194] Office of the Secretary of Defense, News release, Subject: "Gulf War Illnesses Team Expands - New Special Assistant to Deputy Secretary White Named," November 12, 1996.

[195] Letter of Transmittal with Attached Survey (sent to selected veterans), Special Assistant for Persian Gulf Illnesses, January 1997.

[196] Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Supplemental Letter Report, April 30, 1997, p. 4.

[197] Walpole, Robert D, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, "Statement for the Record to the House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations," Central Intelligence Agency, April 16, 1997, p. 2.

[198] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit," September 4, 1997, p. 2.

[199] Transcript of Proceedings, Interviews, "Demolition at Khamisiyah," Conducted by the Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, April 10, 1997, p. 1.

[200] Lead Report 6930, Interview of 37th Engineer Battalion intelligence staff specialist, November 7, 1997.

[201] Lead Report 6652, Interview of 60th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Detachment executive officer, October 24, 1997.

[202] Transcript of Proceedings, Interviews, "Demolition at Khamisiyah," Conducted by the Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, April 10, 1997, p. 90-91.

[203] Office of the Secretary of Defense, News briefing, Subject: "GWI Report on Plume Analysis," July 24, 1997, p. 3.

[204] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit," September 4, 1997, p. 6-8.

[205] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit," September 4, 1997, p. 5-6.

[206] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit," September 4, 1997, p. 6-8.

[207] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit," September 4, 1997, p. 9.

[208] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit," September 4, 1997, p. 9-11.

[209] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit," September 4, 1997, p. 9-11.

[210] The Special Assistant has prepared a separate technical report to explain the details of the Khamisiyah modeling.

[211] Office of the Secretary of Defense, News briefing, Subject: "GWI Report on Plume Analysis," July 24, 1997.

[212] Office of the Secretary of Defense, News release, Subject: "Troops Not Exposed to Dangerous Levels of Chemical Agent," July 24, 1997, p. 1.

[213] Central Intelligence Agency, Office of the Inspector General, Special Assessment: "The Central Intelligence Agency's Handling of Information Related to the Khamisiyah Ammunition Storage Depot (U)," SECRET, February 5, 1998.

[214] The White House, News release, Subject: "President Clinton names Senator Warren B. Rudman as Chair of the Special Oversight Board for Department of Defense Investigations of Gulf War Chemical and Biological Incidents," February 24, 1998.

[215] Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, "Annual Report," November 1998, p. 8.

[216] United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs, "Report of the Special Investigation Unit on Gulf War Illnesses," Volume II, August 1998, p. 8.

[217] Anthes, Richard, Steve Hanna, Bruce Hicks, and Will Pendergrass, "Comments on Khamisiyah Modeling Document Entitled 'Methodology of Refined Modeling of the Khamisiyah Pit Demolition' prepared by the Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses and dated 23 February 2000," March 22, 2000, p. 2.

[218] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit," September 4, 1997, p. 24.

[219] Letter from Robert D Walpole, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Persian Gulf War Illnesses Issues, with attachment, Subject: "Assessment of Releases of Chemical Agents from Iraq," October 14, 1999. Bunker 73 will not be remodeled because the source term is significantly reduced and no US forces were possibly exposed.

[220] We considered data indicating cyclosarin was less toxic.  We chose the toxicity ratio of three-to-one because the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine stated three-to-one is the appropriate choice for low-level vapor exposure.

[221] Memorandum from US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine to Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, Subject: "Recommendations of Vapor and Inhalation Toxicity Estimates to be Used in Khamisiyah Modeling," August 5, 1999, p. 2.

[222] Central Intelligence Agency, Persian Gulf War Illnesses Task Force, "Lessons Learned: Intelligence Support on Chemical and Biological Warfare During the Gulf War and on Veterans' Illnesses Issues," December 1997.

[223] US Army Field Manual 8-285, US Navy Medical Publication P-5041, US Air Force Joint Manual 44-149, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-11, "Treatment Of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries," December 22, 1995, Glossary, Section II, Definitions and Terms, p. 5.

[224] US Army Material Safety Data Sheet, "HQ Sulfur-Mustard/Sesqui-Mustard (Vesicant)," Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, June 30, 1995, p. 1.

[225] US Army Material Safety Data Sheet, "Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM)," December 2, 1999.

[226] US Army Field Manual 8-285, US Navy Medical Publication P-5041, US Air Force Joint Manual 44-149, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-11, "Treatment Of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries," December 22, 1995, Glossary, Section II, Definitions and Terms, p. 6.

[227] Department of Defense, Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program for Persian Gulf War Veterans, "CCEP Report on 18,598 Participants," April 2, 1996.

[228] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, chapter 2, p. 23.

[229] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit," September 4, 1997, p. 20.

[230] Department of Defense, Joint Publication 1-02, "Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms," April 6, 1999, p. 162.

[231] Central Intelligence Agency and Department of Defense, "Modeling the Chemical Warfare Agent Release at the Khamisiyah Pit," September 4, 1997, p. 20.

[232] Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, "The Fox NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle" (Information Paper), March 27, 2001, p. 3-4, web site www.gulflink.osd.mil/fox_vehicle_ii/.

[233] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, chapter 2, p. 18.

[234] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, chapter 2, p. 19.

[235] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, chapter 2, p. 21.

[236] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, chapter 2, p. 23.

[237] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, chapter 2, p. 17-18; US Army Field Manual 8-285, US Navy Medical Publication P-5041, US Air Force Joint Manual 44-149, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-11, "Treatment Of Chemical Agent Casualties And Conventional Military Chemical Injuries," December 22, 1995, p. 2-1, web site www.nbc-med.org/SiteContent/MedRef/OnlineRef/FieldManuals/FM8_285/new/CH2.pdf (as of November 26, 2001).

[238] Memorandum from US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine to Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, Subject: "Recommendations of Vapor and Inhalation Toxicity Estimates to be Used in Khamisiyah Modeling," August 5, 1999, p. 2.

[239] US Naval Observatory, NAVSTAR Global Positioning System, web site tycho.usno.navy.mil/gpsinfo.html (as of November 26, 2001).

[240] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, chapter 2, p. 31.

[241] Central Intelligence Agency, "The Intelligence Community," Factbook on Intelligence, 1997.

[242] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, chapter 2, p. 40, 31, 39.

[243] Brletich, Nancy R., Mary Jo Waters, Gregory W. Bowen, Mary Frances Tracy, Worldwide Chemical Detection Equipment Handbook, Chemical and Biological Defense Information Analysis Center, October 1995, p. 430-431. The Worldwide Chemical Detection Equipment Handbook may be purchased by contacting the CBIAC Administrator, via phone (410-676-9030), fax (410-676-9703), e-mail (cbiac@battelle.org), or web site www.cbiac.apgea.army.mil (as of October 19, 1999). See also Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, "M256 Series Chemical Agent Detector Kit" (Information Paper), July 23, August 13, 1999, web site www.gulflink.osd.mil/m256/.

[244] Brletich, Nancy R., Mary Jo Waters, Gregory W. Bowen, Mary Frances Tracy, Worldwide Chemical Detection Equipment Handbook, Chemical and Biological Defense Information Analysis Center, October 1995, p. 412.

[245] Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, "Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) and Chemical Protection" (Information Paper), November 13, 1997, web site www.gulflink.osd.mil/mopp/.

[246] US Army Field Manual 3-4, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-9, "NBC Protection," May 1992, chapter 2, p. 4.

[247] US Army Field Manual 8-285, US Navy Medical Publication P-5041, US Air Force Joint Manual 44-149, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-11, "Treatment Of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries," December 22, 1995, Part I, Chapter 2, web site
www.nbc-med.org/SiteContent/MedRef/OnlineRef/FieldManuals/FM8_285/new/CH2.pdf (as of November 26, 2001).

[248] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, chapter 2, p. 19.

[249] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, chapter 2, p. 21.

[250] US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, chapter 2, p. 18.

[251]  US Army Field Manual 3-9, US Navy Publication P-467, US Air Force Manual 355-7, "Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds," December 12, 1990, chapter 2, p. 23.

[252] "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction," April 29, 1997. This chemical weapons convention opened for signature in Paris, France, on January 13, 1993. As of June 26, 2001, 174 states have signed, ratified, or acceded to it. The United States signed on January 13, 1993, and ratified the Convention on April 25, 1997. Part XI of the convention, "Investigations in Cases of Alleged Use of Chemical Weapons," details some of the procedures. We found other protocols and guidelines in Methodology and Instrumentation for Sampling and Analysis in the Verification of Chemical Disarmament, The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, Helsinki, Finland, 1985; Verification Methods, Handling, and Assessment of Unusual Events in Relation to Allegations of the Use of Novel Chemical Warfare Agents, Consultant University of Saskatchewan in conjunction with the Verification Research Unit of External Affairs and International Trade Canada, March 1990; and Handbook for the Investigation of Allegations of the Use of Chemical or Biological Weapons, Department of External Affairs, Department of National Defence, Health and Welfare Canada, and Agriculture Canada, November 1985. US Army Field Manual 3-4, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-9, "NBC Protection," May 1992; US Army Field Manual 8-285, US Navy Medical Publication P-5041, US Air Force Joint Manual 44-149, US Marine Corps Fleet Marine Force Manual 11-11 (adopted as NATO Field Manual 8-285), "Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries," December 22, 1995; US Army Field Manual 19-20, "Law Enforcement Investigations," November 25, 1985; and other DoD investigational procedures contributed ideas in developing this methodology.

[253] Office of the Secretary of Defense, News release, Subject: "Pentagon Receives Computer Modeling Progress Report," December 20, 1996.

[254] Institute for Defense Analyses, "Report of the Panel Reviewing Analysis of the Khamisiyah Pit Release of Nerve Agent," July 9, 1997.

[255] Anthes, Richard, Steve Hanna, Bruce Hicks, and Will Pendergrass, "Comments by Peer Review Panel on Khamisiyah Modeling Report and Presentations on November 4-5, 1997," December 11, 1997, p. 7.

[256] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, web site sgi62.wwb.noaa.gov:8080/research/ global2.html (as of March 1, 1999).

[257] Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanographic Center, web site metoc-u1.fnmoc.navy.mil/ (select: Public, Product Information, NOGAPS)  (as of November 21, 2001).

[258] European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, web site www.ecmwf.int/about (as of November 26, 2001).

[259] Naval Research Laboratory, Master Events Library, web site www.nrlmry.navy.mil/projects/coamps (as of November 26, 2001).

[260] Science Applications International Corporation, Advanced Physics Operation Omega, web site www.apo.saic.com/omega/doc/overview/overview.html (as of November 26, 2001).

[261] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Center for Atmospheric Research, "Mesoscale Model, Version 5 Modeling System Overview," web site www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/overview.html (as of November 26, 2001).

[262] See Tab A - Glossary.

[263] Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Promotional brochure, "HPAC, Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability," undated.

[264] Navy Modeling and Simulation Management Office, "Vapor, Liquid and Solid Tracking," web site navmsmo.hq.navy.mil/nmsiscat (search for VLSTRACK) (as of November 21, 2001).

[265] Report of the Panel Reviewing Analysis of the Khamisiyah Pit Release of Nerve Agent, March 1991, "Summary of Findings," July 1997, p. 7, 8.

[266] US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, web site chppm-www.apgea.army.mil (as of November 26, 2001).



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