Air Defense




Index


Antiaircraft Artillery Systems

ZPU-Series 14.5-mm Towed Antiaircraft Guns

The ZPU-series of 14.5-mm towed antiaircraft guns consists of the ZPU-1, ZPU-2, and ZPU-4, with the number representing the number of guns on the chassis. The ordnance consists of the KPV 14.5-mm machine-gun.

ZPU-2 14.5-mm Anti-Aircraft Gun System This towed anti-aircraft artillery gun system consists of twin 14.5-mm KPV heavy machine-guns mounted on a two wheel carriage. The KPV is a recoil-operated, fully automatic weapon system which fires from the open-bolt position. The ZPU-2 system is fed from two 50-round boxes on either side of the system. This system is effective both in a low-altitude air defense role, and in a ground-role. The system is optically controlled and sometimes is supported by off-carriage radar acquisition in the form of a FIRE CAN or FLAP WHEEL target acquisition radar.

ZPU-4 14.5-mm Anti-Aircraft Gun System This towed anti-aircraft artillery gun system consists of four 14.5-mm KPV heavy machine-guns mounted on a four wheel carriage. The KPV is a recoil-operated, fully automatic weapon system which fires from the open-bolt position. The ZPU-4 system is fed from four 500-round drums on both sides of the system. This system is effective both in a low-altitude air defense role, and in a ground-role. The system is optically controlled and sometimes is supported by off-carriage radar acquisition in the form of a FIRE CAN or FLAP WHEEL target acquisition radar. 


ZU 23-2 Towed Antiaircraft Gun

The ZU-23 comprises twin 23-mm cannons on a towed two-wheel carriage. The cannons mount side-by-side between large ring-type trunions. In appearance, the ZU-23 resembles the 14.5-mm ZPU-2; however, the shape and placement of the ZU-23 ammunition boxes (at right angles to the gun carriage) and prominent muzzle flash suppressers are distinguishing features. The ZU-23 is a highly mobile, air-droppable weapon. A battery of 6 ZU-23s is organic to Soviet air assault brigades, as well as to airborne regiments. A battalion of 18 ZU-23s is organic to the Soviet airborne division. It is that division's principal antiaircraft artillery (AAA) weapon. It has an effective AA range of 2,500 meters. It can also be effective against lightly armored ground vehicles. In firing position, the ZU-23 is leveled by jacks and stabilized on a three-point base. It uses an optical-mechanical computing sight for AA fire and a straight-tube telescope for ground targets. The crew can fire the gun from the traveling position in emergencies. The ZU-23 fires the same ammunition as the 23-mm SP AA gun ZSU-23-4. On the towed system, ammunition feeds from box magazines mounted on the outside of each trunion. Reloading is fast and uncomplicated. The magazines are easily accessible. The beginning link of the new belt attaches to the link of the last old cartridge. This last cartridge automatically interrupts the firing cycle when it reaches the feedway and signals the bolt to remain open. 


ZSU-57-2 Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft Gun System

The system consists of a chassis based on T-54 components but with much thinner armor, four rather than five road wheels and a large open-topped turret armed with twin 57 mm S-68 guns which have the same performance and use the same ammunition as the towed single S-60 anti-aircraft gun. The all-welded hull of the ZSU-57-2 is divided into three compartments: driver's at the front, fighting in the center and engine at the rear. The large turret has slightly sloping sides, well-curved corners and is fitted with external grab rails on either side. The torsion bar suspension consists of four dual rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the rear, idler at the front but no return rollers. The first and last road wheel stations are provided with a hydraulic shock absorber. The all-steel track has steel pins that are not secured at the outer end and are free to travel towards the hull. A raised piece of metal welded to the hull just forward of the drive sprocket drives the track pins into position each time they pass. Main armament of the ZSU-57-2 consists of twin 57 mm S-68 cannon with an elevation of +85, depression of -5, and 360 turret traverse. Elevation, depression and turret traverse are powered, with manual controls available for emergency use. The ammunition, in clips of five rounds, is fed to the magazines each side of the weapon by a loader seated in the forward part of each side of the turret. The right-hand gun is modified to be loaded from the right so as to avoid loading problems. The guns are fully automatic, recoil-operated, and each gun has a cyclic rate of fire of 105 to 120 rds/min with a practical rate of fire of 70 rds/gun/min. Maximum horizontal range is 12000 m, maximum vertical range 8000 m, although effective ranges are less than this. Effective slant range is 3993 m, effective altitude limit with weapons elevated at +45 is 2835 m and effective altitude limit with weapons elevated at +65 is 4237 m. Fire control for the ZSU-57-2 is achieved by an optical mechanical computing reflex sight. The weapons can fire the following types of fixed ammunition: FRAG-T and APC-T. The empty cartridge cases and clips are deposited on a conveyor belt which runs under the weapons. This takes the cases and clips to the rear of the turret where they are deposited in the wire cage mounted externally on the turret rear. A total of 300 rounds of ammunition are carried in clips of five rounds. Cyclic rate of fire is 120 rounds per barrel per minute. The ZSU-57-2 has no NBC system and no amphibious capability. Long-range fuel drums can be fitted to the rear of the hull to increase the operational range of the ZSU-57-2.

VARIANTS: Late production ZSU-57-2 SPAAGs were fitted with a more sophisticated sighting system. This model is identified by two small ports in the forward upper portion of the turret front.

China is producing the Type 80 self-propelled anti-aircraft tank which uses a Type 69 II MBT chassis fitted with a Chinese built copy of the turret of the ZSU-57-2. Additional details of this are given in this section under China. 


ZSU 23-4 Self-Propelled Antiaircraft Gun

The ZSU-23-4 is a fully integrated, SP AA system with four liquid-cooled 23-mm automatic cannons mounted on the front of a large, flat, armored turret. The chassis has many components borrowed from other Soviet armored vehicles. The suspension system resembles that of the PT-76 and ASU-85; that is, it has six road wheels and no track support rollers. The driver sits in the left front of the hull; the rest of the crew (the commander, gunner, and radar operator) sit in the turret. The GUN DISH fire control radar mounted on the rear of the turret can fold down during travel. The ZSU-23-4 has the capability to both acquire and track low-flying aircraft targets, with an effective AA range of 2,500 meters. It also is capable of firing on the move because of its integrated radar/gun stabilization system. The high-frequency operation of the GUN DISH radar emits a very narrow beam that provides excellent aircraft tracking while being difficult to detect or evade. However, such a frequency also dictates a limited range; linking the system to other long-range acquisition radars in the area can compensate for this. The ZSU-23-4 can also engage lightly armored ground vehicles. The four guns are water-cooled and have a cyclic rate of fire of 800 to 1,000 rounds per minute each. However, the gunner normally fires them in bursts (2 to 3 rounds per barrel) to reduce ammunition expenditure and prolong barrel life. Each ZSU-23-4 carries about 2,000 rounds onboard. Supply trucks, which follow the ZSUs at a distance of 1.5 to 2.5 kilometers, carry an estimated additional 3,000 rounds for each of the four ZSUs. Electronic target acquisition, tracking, and ranging is automated; an onboard computer determines super elevation and azimuth lead. Conventional optical sights also are available. The onboard load normally mixes two types of ammunition at a ratio of three HEI-T rounds per one API-T round. An HEl round is also available. The HEI-T and HEl rounds are intended for defeating aircraft by blast, fragmentation, or incendiary effect. However, they may also be used against personnel in a ground role. The API-T round can penetrate lightly armored ground targets and aircraft and defeat them by an incendiary effect. Tracers facilitate correction of fire. The ZSU-23-4 is not amphibious, but has a fording capability of just over one meter. During river assault operations, the ZSU-23-4s would be ferried to the far bank immediately after the leading companies. The crew of the ZSU-23-4 receives a degree of protection from the thin armor (maximum thickness 9.4 millimeters in the hull, 8.9 millimeters in the turret). A radiation detection and warning system and an air filtration and overpressure system provide collective NBC protection.

VARIANTS: At least nine identifiable separate versions of the ZSU-23-4 have been seen. These include the ZSU-23-4 model 1965 (pre-series version), the ZSU-23-4 model 1965 (initial production version), the ZSU-23-4V model 1968, the ZSU-23-4V1 model 1972 and the ZSU-23-4M model 1977. Most differ only in stowage, external fittings or cooling vents. Large ammunition panniers, mounted on the turret sides, were introduced in an intermediate production model. The latest variant, the ZSU-23-4M features these panniers, three (instead of two) access ports on each side of the hull and an armored cover for the guns. It also has a digital computer, an improved Gun Dish radar and can be linked to off-carriage radar and fire control equipment if required. The Gun Dish radar on the ZSU-23-4M is capable of being used independently in the search mode whereas on previous versions it had been slaved to the gun tubes. In 1985 a modified ZSU-23-4M was seen with protrusions on the right and left sides of the Gun Dish radar dome and vanes down its center. The vanes are side-lobe clutter-reducing devices and the protrusions are IFF receivers. The most significant changes in late production versions of the ZSU-23-4 have included a major change to the air cooling supply system as well as the radio and electronic systems of the vehicle. These changes have improved the overall reliability of the system. An improved ventilation system for the fighting and crew compartments has been installed. 


2S6 Integrated Air Defense System

The 2S6 Tunguska is a integrated air defense system armwed with 30-mm cannons and SA-19 surface to air missiles. The layout of the vehicle is conventional, with the driver seated at front left, the turret in the center and the engine and transmission at the rear. The driver has a single-piece hatch cover over his position and immediately in front of this are three periscopes. The turret has vertical sides with the commander's cupola being well forward on the right side. Suspension is of the hydro-pneumatic type with six equally spaced road wheels, drive sprocket at the rear, idler at the front and three track return rollers. When traveling, the suspension is lowered to provide maximum possible ground clearance, but when in the firing position it is raised and locked out to provide a more stable firing platform. The 2S6 is probably powered by a derivative of the V-59 diesel engine used on the 2S3/2P24/GMZ chassis although in this application the engine is supplemented by a 50 kW turbine system to allow it to operate with the main engine switched off. The cannon used in the 2S6 are much longer than those of the BMP-2 and are mounted in pairs with the right cannon having the appearance of being slightly to the rear of the left cannon and is provided with a muzzle velocity measuring system. Although the maximum vertical range of the weapons is probably around 5000 m, the maximum effective anti-aircraft range is around 3000 m. According to former Soviet sources, the 2S6 can engage targets flying at a maximum speed of 500 m/s with the complete system having a reaction time of eight seconds. Effective range of the complete system is from 0.2 to 8 km according to former Soviet sources. The SA-19 missiles are mounted four either side of the twin 30 mm cannon and have independent elevation indicating they are probably of the fire-and-forget type. However, it is equally possible that they are of SACLOS (semi-automatic command to line-of-sight) type with an IR terminal seeker. The SA-19 has an approximate range of 8 km and are kept in sealed containers and reloaded in clips of two missiles. The estimated length of the missile is 2 m and it has a launch weight of 30 kg, of which 8 kg is the high explosive warhead. Some sources have indicated that the missile could be semi-active laser guided, infra-red or command radar. The missiles are probably launched in pairs for increased kill probability. Protection is provided for the rear, sides and top of the missile canisters, this may be armored or more probably be made of sheet steel to avoid damage by trees and bushes. To the immediate rear of the launcher is a blast deflector. The weapons can be used when the vehicle is moving but greater accuracy would be obtained if stationary and the hydro-pneumatic suspension is locked out. The 2S6 has individual tracking and surveillance radars in a system called the Hot Shot by NATO. The surveillance and target acquisition radar being mounted on the turret roof at the rear, this folds down 90 to the turret rear when not required so reducing the overall height of the system and reducing possible damage from trees and other terrain obstacles. This radar has a maximum effective range of at least 18 km. Mounted on front of the turret is the fire control radar which tracks the target and has a range of between 8 and 10 km. On the left side of the turret roof are the optical sights which may have both day and night capability as well as being used in a heavy ECCM environment. There are at least two types of roof-mounted optical sights, the earlier system being somewhat similar to that of the older ZSU-23-4 system. The second arrangement is believed to be a new design and incorporates a day/night capability. One of the roof sights is probably used with the SA-19 SAMs. A laser rangefinder is probably incorporated as well, as the system presumably includes an IFF interrogator which interacts with the usual Khrom-Nikel (Odd Rods) IFF system found on Soviet combat aircraft. The turret has seats for three crew members. 



Surface to Air Missile (SAMs) Systems

SA-2 GUIDELINE Medium-to-high Altitude Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-2 (V-750) is a medium to high altitude surface-to-air missile system. It is a two-stage weapon with a large solid propellant booster stage fitted with four very large delta fins. The missile itself has a storable liquid fuel sustainer rocket motor which uses an inhibited red fuming nitric acid/kerosene fuel mix. Towards the mid-section is a set of four cropped delta-shaped wings with a second in-line set of small fixed fins at the nose and a third in-line set of slightly larger powered control fins at the tail. The warhead of the SA-2a/b/c/d/f weighs 195 kg (130 kg of which is HE) and is an HE internally grooved fragmentation type with proximity, contact and command type fusing available. The 295 kg nuclear warhead for the SA-2e variant is believed to have a yield of 15 kT. The conventional warhead weighs the same. The warhead of the SA-2a/b/c/e/f models is fitted forward of the main fins and behind the nose-mounted guidance assembly. Maximum blast radius against a high altitude target such as a U-2 is around 244 m due to the rarefied atmosphere. At medium to low levels against fighter sized targets the kill radius is about 65 m and the blast radius for severe damage is 100-120 m. The weapon has a CEP figure of 75 m with the large blast radius compensating for any system inaccuracies. The whole V-75 system, including the launcher, is designed to be simple and easy to operate with the minimum of specialized training. In practically all user countries the pattern of a battalion site is as follows: six semi-fixed trainable single rail launchers are deployed in a hexagon arrangement, about 60-100 m apart. They can either be dug into pits, left at ground level or hardened by being dug in and surrounded by concrete revetments. In the center of the launchers is the battery command post with the fire control team and its computer, the Fan Song missile control radar, the P-12 (NATO designation Spoon Rest-A truck-mounted or Spoon Rest-B) early warning radar and usually six reload rounds on their articulated trailers. The battalion's early warning and target acquisition Spoon Rest A-band radar has a range of 275 km using a large Yagi antenna array. At regimental HQ there is a fourth Spoon Rest, a van-mounted P-15 (NATO code name Flat Face) 250 km range C-band search and tracking radar with two elliptical parabolic reflectors and a PRV-11 (NATO code name Side Net) 180 km range E-band nodding height-finder radar mounted on a box-bodied trailer. There is also a radar control truck and a Mercury Grass truck-mounted command communications system for linking the HQ to the three battalions. Maximum radar range of the E-band Fan Song A/B/F models varies between 60-120 km depending upon target type, altitude and operating conditions. The G-band Fan Song D/E maximum range is extended to between 75-145 km under the same parameters. In some countries which only deploy early versions of the SA-2, the elderly ground-mounted P-8 Dolphin (NATO code name Knife Rest-A) or truck-mounted P-10 (NATO code name Knife Rest-B/C) radars may be used in lieu of Spoon Rest. They are A-band sets and have an operating range in the order of 150-200 km. VARIANTS: The People's Republic of China has developed its own modified version of the V-750 under the designation HQ-2, details of which appear earlier in this section. The license-built version was the HQ-1. Arab British Dynamics reverse engineered the V-750 'Guideline' to meet the requirements of the Egyptian Air Defense Command, but it was not placed in production. It had the local name Early Bird. A navalized version, the M-2 (US designation SA-N-2), was tried from 1961 onwards, but proved unsuccessful. Iraq has modified some of its SA-2 stockpile to accept an infra-red homing seeker (q.v.). 


SA-3 GOA Medium Altitude Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-3 (S-125) GOA is a two-stage, solid-fuel, low to medium-altitude SAM. Two ready missiles travel in tandem on a modified truck or tracked vehicle from which the crew loads the missiles onto a ground-mounted, trainable launcher for firing. Both twin and quadruple launchers are in use. The SA-3 has a large 2.6 second burn jettisonable solid fuel Isayev OKB booster section fitted with rectangular fins that rotate through 90 at launch. The smaller missile body has an 18.7 second burn Isayev OKB solid fuel sustainer rocket and is fitted with four fixed fins aft and four movable control surfaces forward. After booster jettison the second stage is captured in the radar beam and guidance signals are sent via antenna on the rear fins to place the missile on an intercept trajectory. In the initial 1961 version, US designation SA-3a (NATO designation GOA Mod 0), guidance is by command throughout the flight, while in the definitive version introduced into service in 1964 and known by the US designation SA-3b (NATO designation GOA Mod 1), this has been improved. Long-range early warning and target acquisition is usually handled by a van-mounted P-15 (NATO designation FLAT FACE) radar. In many SA-3 battalions the P-15 has been replaced by the P-15M set (NATO designation SQUAT EYE) which has approximately the same performance but has had its antenna mounted on a 20-30 m mast to improve the low altitude coverage. A PRV-11 (NATO designation SIDE NET) 180 km range 32000 m altitude E-band height-finder radar is also used. All target data generated is passed onto the SA-3 battalion's organic trailer-mounted fire control radar known by the NATO designation LOW BLOW. Maximum acquisition range is 110 km and tracking range of the I-band system is between 40-85 km depending on the target size, altitude and operational conditions. It can track six aircraft simultaneously and guide one or two missiles at once. For operating in a heavy ECM environment, late production LOW BLOW radars have been fitted with 25 km range TV cameras to give the fire control team the same data as from the emitting radar and allow a command guidance interception only to be performed. If the missile fails to intercept, another signal is sent to either change the trajectory or self-destruct. The trainable launchers are ground-mounted but can be relocated. SA-3s are normally transported in pairs from battalion storage areas on modified ZIL-131 (6 x 6) or ZIL-157 (6 x 6) trucks and loaded onto the launchers with the aid of a conveyor. It takes only a minute to load the missiles onto the rails, but the duration between missile launches is about 50 minutes due to missile preparation, truck transit and other reloading procedures. The missile's ability to dive also allows it to be used against surface targets and naval vessels. 


SA-4 GANEF Medium to High Altitude Surface-to-air Missile System

Each SA-4 TEL (Industrial Index designation 2P24) consists of a tracked armored chassis on top of which is mounted a hydraulically operated turntable carrying the two missiles. The engine is to the right of the driver with the remainder of the space in the vehicle taken up by the crew and electronics. There are hatches for the other crew members either side of the missile turntable. The torsion bar suspension consists of seven dual rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the front and the idler at the rear, and four track return rollers. The vehicle has an air filtration and overpressure NBC system and an IR night vision system for the commander and driver but no amphibious capability. The launcher can be traversed by 360 with the missiles being elevated up to an angle of 45 on their launcher arms for launching. The missile is launched by four solid booster rockets mounted externally on the body. After launch the boosters burn for about 15 seconds and then fall away when the fueled ramjet kerosene sustainer motor ignition speed of over Mach 1 is attained at about 9 km from the TEL. The four fins are fixed and the four wings, in two pairs, are hydraulically operated. A typical target engagement is believed to take place as follows. The target is first detected at long range by a 150 km range and 30000 m maximum altitude Long Track early warning radar which is mounted on a lengthened version of the AT-T heavy artillery tractor with a large van body added and is also used for the SA-6 SAM. Long Track operates in the E-band and passes data to the SA-4 GANEF battery where the H-band Pat Hand continuous wave fire control and command guidance radar takes over. Height information is also provided by the 240 km range Thin Skin truck- or trailer-mounted height-finder radar which operates in the H-band. The Pat Hand radar is mounted on essentially the same chassis as the GANEF launcher with the whole assembly collapsed flat and a grill raised in front of the radar for road transit. This radar acquires the target at about 120-130 km and when it is within the 80-90 km tracking range a single missile is launched and guided to the target by the guidance beam with a semi-active terminal homing phase for the final stage. The missile is tracked in flight by a continuous wave radar transponder beacon attached to one of the tail fins. If required the Pat Hand can handle two missiles per target in order to increase the kill probability. The reserve missiles are carried on Ural-375 (6 x 6) trucks. Reloading the TEL takes between 10 and 15 minutes.

VARIANTS: It is known that there have been as many as four sub-variants of the missile, designated 9M8, 9M8M, 9M8M1 and 9M8M2. External differences between them were minimal as any improvements were internal. The last two sub-variants are the predominant types in service. The 9M8M1 is the 1967 8.8 m long-nosed version (the SA-4a) with effective range limits of 8 to 55 km and effective altitude limits of 100 to 27000 m. The 9M8M2, introduced in 1973, is the short-nosed 8.3 m version (SA-4b or GANEF Mod 1). This has an improved close-range performance to reduce the dead zone above the TEL at the expense of losing some 3000 m in altitude and 5-10 km in maximum range capabilities. Both versions have a fuselage diameter of 0.86 m, a wing span of 2.3 m and a tail span of 2.73 m. The HE warhead weighs 135 kg and is detonated by a proximity fuse. The missile is armed 300 m from the launcher. A battery is likely to have one TEL fitted with the 9M8M2 and two TELs with the 9M8M1 missile, although some TELs have been seen carrying one missile of each type. An electro-optical fire control system is believed to be fitted for use in a heavy ECM environment. 


SA-5 GAMMON Medium to High Altitude Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-5 GAMMON is a medium to high -altitude surface to air missile system. The missile itself is of the single-stage type with four jettisonable, wraparound solid fuel booster packs. Each booster is 4.9 m long, 0.48 m in diameter and has a single fin span length of 0.35 m from the booster body. The S-200 is 10.72 m long overall and has a maximum wing span of 2.85 m. The main body is 0.85 m in diameter and has a solid fuel dual thrust sustainer rocket engine. Each missile battalion has one P-35M (NATO designation BARLOCK-B) E/F-band 320 km range target search and acquisition radar with an integral D-band IFF system, one H-band NATO designation Square Pair 270 km range missile guidance radar, and six trainable semi-fixed single rail launchers. The minimum range of 60 km or so is due to the booster burn time and jettison requirements which limit it to engagements against relatively large unmaneuverable targets at ranges up to 250 km. Guidance beyond the 60 km booster jettison point is by course correction command signals from the Square Pair radar with the S-200's own active radar terminal homing seeker head being activated near to the projected intercept point for the final guidance phase. The large HE warhead is detonated either by a command signal or the onboard proximity fusing system. When fitted with a nuclear warhead only the command detonation option is used.


SA-6 GAINFUL Low to Medium Altitude Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-6 GAINFUL is a two-stage, solid-fuel, low-altitude SAM. It has radio-command guidance with semi-active radar terminal homing. The SA-6 TEL (Industrial Index designation 2P25) is all-welded with the crew compartment at the front, missiles on the turntable immediately behind the crew compartment and the engine at the rear. The engine and transmission are at the rear of the hull. The torsion bar suspension system consists of six rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the rear and the idler at the front. There are no track return rollers. The SA-6 vehicle has an air filtration and overpressure NBC system and infra-red night vision equipment fitted as standard but the vehicle has no amphibious capability. Three SA-6 missiles are carried on a turntable which can be traversed through a full 360 with the missiles elevated on their launchers to a maximum of +85. When traveling the turntable is normally traversed to the rear and the missiles are horizontal to reduce the overall height of the vehicle. It is estimated that the SA-6a (NATO designation GAINFUL Mod 0) missile has a length of 5.7 m, body diameter of 0.335 m, wing span of 1.245 m, tail span of 1.524 m and has a launch weight of 599 kg with a 56 kg HE-fragmentation warhead. The proximity and contact fuses are armed after some 50 m of flight. The basic SA-6a has a maximum effective range of 24000 m and a minimum effective range of 3000 m, the minimum engagement height is 100 m when using the STRAIGHT FLUSH fire control radar and 80 m when in the optical tracking mode, the maximum effective altitude is about 11000 m. Reload missiles are carried on modified ZIL-131 (6 x 6) trucks and are loaded manually onto the launcher by a crane carried on the rear of the loader vehicle. Reloading an TEL takes approximately 10 minutes. STRAIGHT FLUSH has a similar chassis to that of the SA-6 with a range of 55 to 75 km and a 10000 m altitude capability depending upon conditions and target size, and performs limited search, low altitude detection/acquisition, pulse Doppler IFF interrogation, target tracking and illumination, missile radar command guidance and secondary radar missile tracking functions. The vehicle also carries the fire control computers for the missile battery. Some modified STRAIGHT FLUSH vehicles have been observed with a TV camera of 30 km range to enable the battery to remain in action even if the vehicle's radars are jammed or forced to shut down because of the threat of anti-radiation missiles. STRAIGHT FLUSH can also be linked to the launch vehicles by either a radio data link or a 10 m long cable for direct data input to the launcher's systems. The data link antenna is carried on the right forward hull corner of the TEL. The upper foldable STRAIGHT FLUSH 28 km range dish antenna is of the conical scanning type and is used for low altitude H-band sector search scans, target tracking and target illumination. The lower parabolic antenna is of the G-band 55 to 75 km range medium altitude target acquisition and early warning radar type, with the lower feed for medium to high altitude coverage and the upper feed for low altitude coverage. The STRAIGHT FLUSH can begin target acquisition at its maximum range of 75 km, and begin tracking and illumination at the 28 km mark. The STRAIGHT FLUSH can only illuminate a single target and control three missiles at any one time so normal practice when a target track has been initiated is to normally order the launch of two and sometimes three weapons from one or more TELs. With radars up, reaction time from a dormant condition through the target acquisition, IFF interrogation and lock-on phases to missile launch is about three minutes. If the radar vehicle is already active then the time taken for the sequence is reduced to between 15 to 30 seconds. A battery is able to become mobile and relocate to an alternate firing position in approximately 15 minutes from systems being shutdown.

VARIANTS: In 1977 the SA-6b (NATO designation GAINFUL Mod 1), a derivative of the 9M9M1 missile, entered service mounted on an SPU which was based on the GM-539 medium-tracked transporter and subsequently used for the SA-11 system. The SPU carried three SA-6b missiles and an associated Fire Dome H/I-band missile guidance illuminator radar fitted on the front end of the launcher assembly. The SA-6b was initially deployed on the basis of one SPU per SA-6a battery, as an interim system until the complete SA-11 GADFLY system was fielded.


SA-7 GRAIL Man-portable Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-7 GRAIL (Strela-2) is a man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude SAM system similar to the US Army’s REDEYE. The missile had a HE warhead and passive infrared homing guidance. The system comprises the missile (9K32 & 9K32M), a reloadable gripstock (9P54 & 9P54M), and a thermal battery (9B17). There are two versions: the SA-7a (9K32) and SA-7b (9K32M). The SA-7a (Strela-2) was introduced for service in 1968, but was quickly replaced by the SA-7b (Strela-2M) which became the most common production model. The SA-7a has a slant range of 3.6 km and a kill zone between 15 and 1500 meters in altitude. Its speed is about 430 meters per second (Mach 1.4). The SA-7b, differs from the SA-7a primarily by using a boosted propellant charge to increase range and speed. This gives the SA-7b a slant range of about 4.2 km, a ceiling of about 2300 meters, and a speed of about 500 meters per second (Mach 1.75). Both the SA-7a and SA-7b are tail-chase missile systems, and its effectiveness depends on its ability to lock onto the heat source of targets, usually low-flying fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. Although the SA-7 is limited in range, speed, and altitude, it forces enemy pilots to fly above minimum radar limitations which results in detection and vulnerability to regimental and divisional air defense systems. An identification friend or foe (IFF) system can be fitted to the operator’s helmet. 


SA-8 GECKO Low Altitude Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-8 GECKO is a single-stage, solid-fuel, short-range, low-altitude, all-weather SAM system. The TELAR (transporter erector launcher and radar) vehicle is a six-wheeled design designated BAZ-5937. The driver's compartment at the front of the vehicle has accommodation for two, the driver and commander, with access to it via a hatch in the roof. The engine is at the very rear. Four command-guided missiles are carried ready to launch, two either side. The main fire control radar is at the rear of a one-man gunner-radar operator position and folds back 90 to reduce the overall height of the vehicle for air transport and during high speed road travel. It is known that the radar operates in the H-band with a 360 traverse and has a maximum range of 35 km. The complete conical-scan radar installation of the GECKO has been assigned the NATO code name LAND ROLL. Each battery also has two missile transloaders based on the same chassis with a long coffin-like blunt pointed tarp roofed structure covering the cargo space and crane. When operating, the blunt point area is raised and the tarped structure is slid to the rear. A total of 18 reloads in boxed sets of three are transferred to the TELARs by the hydraulic crane mounted centrally behind the vehicle cab. In the Regiments Maintenance battery there is a single radar collimation vehicle using the same chassis. This has a collimation antenna which lies on both sides of the vehicle and overhangs the rear during transit. In operation it is raised and mounted on each side of the hull directly behind the cab. The SA-8a (GECKO Mod 0) high acceleration missile (Factory Index number 9M33) has a launch weight of about 130 kg. Maximum speed is Mach 2.4, minimum altitude is 25 m, maximum effective altitude 5000 m. The minimum range is 1500 m and the maximum range 12000 m. Against an F-4 Phantom target the warhead's lethal radius at low altitude is 5 m and is fitted with proximity and contact fuses. In 1980 a newer missile, the SA-8b or GECKO Mod 1, was introduced into service. Contained in a rectangular launch box it has improved guidance and speed characteristics to give an increased maximum range of 15000 m. The warhead weight of both missiles is 19 kg. The reloading time is five minutes. Combat deployment time is four minutes with system reaction 26 seconds. The surveillance radar of the LAND ROLL operates in the H band and has an effective range of around 30 kilometers against a typical target. The tracking radar is of the pulsed type and it operates in the J band with a range of 20 to 25 kilometers. The two I-band guidance radars make it possible to launch two missiles at the same target, each one responding to a different frequency to frustrate ECM. Mounted on top of each missile guidance radar is an LLLTV/optical assist system for target tracking in low visibility and heavy ECM. LAND ROLL is also known to have a short-range target acquisition capability. The vehicle is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by two water jets at the rear of the hull. The vehicle is fitted with an air filtration and overpressure NBC system together with IR systems for the commander and driver.

VARIANTS: There are at least three major families of SA-8 launch vehicles. The first has a very blunt nose, and may be a pre-series prototype. The standard production type for the SA-8a has a sharper nose, and there appear to be sub-variants of this vehicle with minor changes in the detail of hull fittings. The SA-8b vehicle is basically similar to the SA-8a vehicle mentioned above aside from the launcher details to accommodate six missile canisters. There are also indications that a distinctly different SA-8b launcher may exist, with a reconfigured rear end. In 1991 SA-8b TELs were seen with an additional small sized radar antenna fitted above the surveillance radar. It is possible that the antenna may be associated with a new IFF system. 


SA-9 GASKIN Low Altitude Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-9 GASKIN is a short-range, low-altitude SAM. The system consists of a BRDM-2 transporter erector launcher (TEL) chain-driven belly wheels removed and the normal turret replaced by one with four ready to launch SA-9 container-launcher boxes. These are normally lowered to the horizontal when traveling to reduce the overall height of the vehicle. The original version of the Strela-1 was known as the 9M31 (SA-9a, nickname GASKIN Mod 0) and used an uncooled first-generation lead sulfide (PbS) infra-red (IR) seeker operating. This was supplemented by the 9M31M variant (SA-9b, nickname GASKIN Mod 1) which has an improved seeker providing greater target sensitivity and lock on ability. The 30 kg Mach 1.5 missile is 1.8 m long, 0.12 m in diameter and has a wing span of 0.375 m. The minimum range of the 9M31 is 800 m and the maximum range 6500 m within altitude limits of 15 to 5200 m. The minimum range of the 9M31M is 560 m and the maximum range 8000 m (increasing to a possible 11000 m when used in a tail-chase engagement) within altitude limits of 10 to 6100 m. When engaging a head-on target the system has a considerably reduced range. The SA-9 is fitted with an HE-fragmentation warhead and proximity fuse with a lethal radius of 5 m and damage radius of 7.6 m. One SA-9 TEL (SA-9 Mod A, BRDM-2A1 or SA-9A TEL) in each battery has been fitted with Flat Box A passive radar detection antenna, one either side of the hull above the front wheel housings, one under the left launch canisters pointing forward and one mounted on a small frame above the rear engine deck plate pointing rearwards to give 360 coverage. The TEL with no Flat Box A system is known as the SA-9 Mod B, BRDM-2A2 or SA-9B. The vehicle crew of three consists of the commander, driver and gunner and there is an IR system for the first two to use at night. An air-filtration and overpressure NBC system is fitted as standard. In combat the missiles are usually sequentially fired (two per target) to increase the kill probability with a time between rounds of about five seconds. Reloading is performed manually and takes about five minutes to accomplish. 


SA-10 GRUMBLE Low to High Altitude Surface-to-air Missile System

The all-weather SA-10 system is able to engage several targets at once and combat intensive raids at all altitude levels from very low up to high level. In the mid-1980s design work was completed on a mobile version of the system, known by the designation SA-10b GRUMBLE Mod 1 (Russian designation S-300PMU). In this version the weapon is mounted, carried and vertically launched from a dedicated four-round capacity transporter-erector launcher vehicle based on the MAZ-7910 (8 x 8) truck chassis. The combined engagement radar and control station is mounted on the same chassis. The SA-10a site (complex) is believed to be occupied by a missile battery which deploys a battery command post and engagement control center, a large 3D continuous wave pulse Doppler target acquisition radar (CLAM SHELL), an I-band multi-function phased-array trailer-mounted engagement radar (FLAP LID A) with digital beam steering in hardened sites, and up to 12 semi-trailer erector-launchers which mount four tubular missile container-launchers. The towing unit for the semi-trailer erector-launcher is the KrAZ-260V (6 x 6) tractor truck. The launchers are usually positioned on concrete pads with the trailers being leveled by the use of four hydraulic jacks. An SA-10a Regiment probably comprises three such batteries and deploys a 4 m high F-band long-range, 3D surveillance and tracking radar (BIG BIRD) at the Regimental command post for initial target detection. The SA-10b mobile missile battery comprises the combined FLAP LID B engagement radar and engagement control/command post station mounted on a MAZ-7910 chassis, up to 12 TELs (SPU: mobile launcher unit), a trailer-mounted 3D 360 scanning target designation radar (Russian designation 36D6; CLAM SHELL) and a maintenance section. An SA-10b Regiment probably consists of three such batteries together with an additional radar section and a number of TZM (transport-loader vehicles) MAZ-7910 transloaders for resupply purposes. The vertically launched SA-10 missile is a single stage weapon powered by an air-fired solid propellant rocket motor. The warhead is normally a 100 kg plus HE-fragmentation type with proximity fusing although a low yield tactical nuclear type is believed to be a possible option. The TEL version carries a total of four sealed container-launcher cylinders, each of which is used for the storage, transport and launching of a missile. When traveling the launcher system is carried in the horizontal position but at the launch site is elevated to an angle of 90. The missile was designed to have this vertical launch trajectory so it has the quickest available reaction time capability to counter targets approaching from any azimuth. The combined FLAP LID-B radar/engagement control vehicle has the 2.75 m2 planar array antenna mounted to the front on a box-like antenna mount and support systems container. When traveling the array is carried horizontally but when deployed it is raised above the container to an angle of approximately 60. Missile guidance is of the Track-Via-Missile (TVM) type with the FLAP LID guidance radar capable of engaging up to six targets simultaneously, with two missiles assigned per target to ensure a high kill probability. Maximum target velocity is stated to be 4200 km/h with the battery capable of firing three missiles per second. The battery takes only five minutes to deploy once it comes to the halt as the vehicles have an electronic inter-vehicle communications and data transmission link that uses elevatable pole-type devices and does not require any interconnecting vehicle cables. Each of the MAZ-7910 derivative vehicles also has a set of four hydraulic jacks positioned either side between the first/second and third/fourth road wheels which are lowered to the ground to provide a more stable and level environment. Time out of battery for the system is again around five minutes. If the battery is employed in rugged terrain or forest then the engagement radar system and box-like superstructure can be mounted on a special trailer-mounted extendible 24.4 m high tower to improve radar coverage. If this type of radar is used in its extended state then the low level engagement range of the SA-10 system is said to increase to 43200 m from the original 32000 m. Missile engagement altitude limits extend from 25 m upwards to about 30000 m. Maximum engagement range is stated by the Russians to be 90000 m, although in practice it is probably greater than this. When in its sealed container-launcher cylinder the missile is considered to be a round of ammunition and is said not to require any check-ups or adjustments for a period of 10 years. 


SA-11 GADFLY Low to Medium Altitude Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-11 GADFLY is a medium-range, semi-active, radar-guided missile using solid-rocket propulsion. The system provides defense against high-performance aircraft and cruise missiles. The SA-11 systems is comprised of the TELAR (9A310M1), Loader/Launcher (9A39M1), SNOW DRIFT Surveillance Radar (9S18M1), and Command and Control vehicle (9S470M1). The TELAR, which is based on the GM-569 tracked chassis, carries four ready to fire missiles on a turntable that can be traversed a full 360 and H/I-band FIRE DOME monopulse guidance and tracking radar. The associated tracked Surveillance Radar vehicle uses the same chassis and carries the early warning and acquisition radars (SNOW DRIFT) and provides the target's height, bearing and range data. The Loader/Launcher vehicle (LLV) resembles the normal TELAR, but lacks the FIRE DOME fire control radar which was replaced with a hydraulic crane for reloading 9M38 missiles. The SA-11 GADFLY system’s Command and Control vehicle works in conjunction with the SNOW DRIFT, which has a detection range of 85 km against high-flying targets, 35 km against targets at an altitude of 100 meters, and 23 km against targets flying nap-of-the-earth (NOE); it has a tracking range extending from 70 km for high-flying targets to 20 km for NOE targets. Tracking of helicopters hovering at 30 m can be made as far as 10 km. The SNOW DRIFT receives early warning from brigade-level surveillance radars such as the SPOON REST. Once a target is identified then it is turned over to an TELAR via a data link for tracking and attack. The FIRE DOME engagement radar has an effective guidance range of 3-32 km and an effective altitude envelope 15 meters to 22 km. It can engage approaching targets moving at a maximum of 3000 km/h (1860 mph). The radar can guide up to three missiles against a single target. The system also can be fitted with a supplementary electro-optical sighting system for use in cases where electronic jamming from the target aircraft overwhelms the usual semi-active radar homing system. In this case the missile uses radio-command guidance. The Mach 3 semi-active homing missile has a maximum slant range of 28 km and a minimum range of 3 km. It is capable of engaging targets between the altitude limits of 30 and 14000 m and can sustain 23 g maneuvers. The missile length is 5.6 m, diameter is 0.4 m and the wing span is 1.2 m. Launch weight is 650 kg and is fitted with a 70 kg HE warhead, which has a 17 meter kill zone. Propulsion is by a solid fuel rocket motor. The LLV can load itself in rear areas from the 9T229 transporter in 15 minutes, and then take those missiles to reload the TELAR in about 13 minutes. In the event the firing battery is saturated with targets, the LLV can launch missiles, though it requires radar guidance from a nearby TELAR. The SA-11 represents a considerable improvement over the earlier SA-6 GAINFUL system. The system is more mobile, taking only about 5 minutes to move from road march to engagement. The battery can engage six separate targets simultaneously, instead of only one by the SA-6. Moreover, the higher kill probability of kill means that the ready reserve of missiles will not be exhausted as quickly as with the SA-6. Russian sources claim a single missile kill probability of 60-90% against aircraft, 30-70% against helicopters, and 40% against cruise missiles. The configuration provides it with much greater resistance to ECM than older FSU SAM systems. 


SA-12a GLADIATOR and SA-12b GIANT Low to High Altitude Surface to Air Missile Systems

The SA-12 (S-300V) is a low-to-high Altitude, tactical surface to air missile system/anti-ballistic missile system. The SA-12 system consists of the following elements: SA-12a GLADIATOR TELAR (9A93), GLADIATOR Launcher/Loader Vehicle (LLV) (9A85), SA-12b GIANT TELAR (9A82), GIANT LLV (9A84), GRILL PAN Guidance Radar system (9S32), BILL BOARD Surveillance Radar system (9S15), HIGH SCREEN Sector Radar system (9S19), and Command Station (9S457). The primary difference between the SA-12a and SA-12b is range: the SA-12b is a longer range system and has a longer fuselage with larger solid-fuel engine. The SA-12a GLADIATOR missile (9M83) is a dual-role, anti-missile and anti-aircraft, whereas the SA-12b GIANT missile (9M82) is configured primarily for the ATBM role. The SA-12a and SA-12b TELAR vehicles are essentially the same but with two key differences: The SA-12a (9A83-1) carries four 9M83 GLADIATOR missiles, while the SA-12b (9A82) carries only two 9M82 GIANT missiles. In addition, the configuration of the vehicle’s command radar is distinctly different. On the 9A83-1, the radar is mounted on a folding mast which gives it 360 coverage in azimuth, as well as full hemispheric coverage in elevation. On the 9M82 TELAR, the radar is mounted in a semi-fixed position over the cab, with 90 coverage to either side in azimuth and 110 in 2elevation. The individual TELARs are not capable of autonomous engagements without the participation of the GRILL PAN radar. The command and control vehicle for the SA-12 system is the 9S457-1 Command Post vehicle. This vehicle is supported by the BILL BOARD A surveillance radar and the HIGH SCREEN sector radar. The BILL BOARD A is used for general surveillance and can detect up to 200 targets and transmit their data to the CP; it has target coverage of 0-55 in elevation and 10-250 km in range. The antenna rotates completely in 6-12 seconds, and the system accuracy is 30-35 min of arc in azimuth and 250 m in range. The HIGH SCREEN sector radar is used in support of the ATBM role, to keep constant watch on the most likely avenue of approach of hostile missiles. When a high sped target is detected, the radar is switched to initiate tracking and it automatically transmits the trajectory parameters to the CP. The post can then prioritize the threat and instruct the HIGH SCREEN as to which missiles are to be tracked, with the maximum being 16 targets. The CP with its attendant radar systems can detect up to 200 targets, initiate tracking on up to 70 targets and designate 24 of the targets automatically to the brigade’s four GRILL PAN radar systems, where they can be engaged by the SA-12a and SA-12b TELARs. Control of the battery’s launcher vehicles (TELARs and LLVs) is managed by the GRILL PAN radar system. It can track up to 12 targets and control up to six missiles against these targets simultaneously. When searching for a target with a radar cross-section of 2m2, the radar can acquire the target at a range of 150 km in manual mode and 140 km in automatic mode. The GRILL PAN can track the targets assigned to it by the CP while simultaneously maintaining a horizon search for new targets. The LLVs (9A85 GLADIATOR and 9A83 GLADIATOR) resemble normal TELARs, but lack the command radar and have a loading crane instead. The primary role of these LLVs is to replenish the TELARs. However, these vehicles are capable of erecting and launching the missiles as well as carrying them. Because of their lack of the command radar, these LLVs are dependent on the use of the radars from neighboring TELARs. The SA-12a missile (9M83) is a dual-role anti-aircraft missile with a maximum range between 75 and 90 km. The SA-12b missile (9M82) is designed primarily for ATBM defense, and has a maximum range between 100 and 200 km. 


SA-13 GOPHER Low Altitude Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-13 GOPHER is a short-range, low altitude SAM system. The SA-13 TELAR is a modified MT-LB amphibious armored tracked vehicle with the machine-gun turret removed. The launcher pedestal mounted to the rear of center of the vehicle is 360 traversable. It incorporates the operator’s position behind a large, rectangular window at its base. The SA-13 incorporates a range-only radar (HAT BOX) which provides the operator the target’s range to the system. There are two versions of the SA-13 transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) variant of the MT-LBu vehicle in service, designated TELAR-1 and TELAR-2. Appraisal of both does not show any significant structural differences but it is known that the TELAR-1 carries four FLAT BOX B passive radar detection antenna units, one on either corner of the vehicle's rear deck, one facing aft and one between the driver's vision ports at the front, whereas the TELAR-2 has none. The TELAR-1 is apparently used by the SA-13 battery commander. Known as the ZRK-BD Strela-10 system, the SA-13 missile (9M37) is 2.2 m long, 0.12 m in diameter with a 0.4 m wingspan and has a maximum speed of Mach 2. It carries a 5 kg HE warhead and is fitted with either an improved passive lead sulfide all-aspects infra-red seeker unit, or a cryogenically cooled passive all-aspects infra-red seeker unit. Normally the TELAR carries four ready to fire SA-13 missile container-launchers and eight reloads in the cargo compartment but it has also been seen on numerous occasions with either SA-9 GASKIN container-launcher boxes in their place or a mixture of the two. This enables the battlefield features of both missiles to be utilized to the full by allowing the cheaper SA-9 (Strela-1) to be used against the "easier" targets and the more expensive and sophisticated SA-13 (Strela-10) against the 'difficult' targets. The missile mix also allows a choice of infra-red (IR) seeker types on the missiles for use against extremely low altitude targets as well as in adverse weather conditions. The estimated minimum range of the SA-13 is 500 m and the maximum effective range of 5000 m with altitude engagement limits of 10 to 3500 m. Some vehicles have a pintle-mounted PKT 7.62 mm machine gun in front of the forward hatch for local protection. Other vehicles have been seen with additional support railings for the system on the rear deck. The HAT BOX circular parabolic radar antenna is located between the two pairs of missile canisters and is a simple range-only set to prevent wastage of missiles outside the effective range of the system.

VARIANTS: Apart from the Strela-10M2 the Soviets have deployed another version of the SA-13 known by the designation Strela-10M3. This is designed for use in the mobile battle and to defend troops on the march from low level attacks by aircraft and helicopters, precision-guided munitions and other flying vehicles such as reconnaissance RPVs. The major change is the adoption of a dual mode guidance system for the missile seeker - optical 'photo-contrast' and dual band passive IR. The missile accommodating this system is the 9M333. This weighs 42 kg at launch and when in its container-launcher the box-like canister has a total mass of 74 kg. Target acquisition range using the optical 'photo-contrast' channel is between 2000-8000 m whilst for the IR channel it is between 2300-5300 m. Altitude engagement limits are from 10 m up to 3500 m at a maximum range of 5000 m. Average missile speed is 550 m/s. The HE-fragmentation rod warhead weighs 5 kg in total (including 2.6 kg of HE) and uses both contact and active laser proximity fusing systems. The actuation radius of the proximity fuse is up to 4 m. The dual mode passive optical 'photo-contrast/IR seeker ensures good IR decoy counter-countermeasures discrimination capability and optimum use of the system against diverse and extremely low altitude targets as well as in adverse weather conditions.


SA-14 GREMLIN Man-portable Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-14 GREMLIN (Strela--3 9K34) is the successor to the SA-7/SA-7b (Strela-2 9K32 and Strela-2M 9K32M). This system is comprised of the 9P59 gripstock, 9P51 thermal battery/gas reservoir, and 9M36-1 missile. The SA-14 has an external appearance very similar to that of the SA-7. In fact the gripstock, launch canister and aft missile body are almost identical. The most significant differences are the new seeker system and the substitution of a ball-shaped 9P51 thermal battery and gas reservoir for the old canister shaped battery found on the SA-7. The new nitrogen-cooled lead sulfide seeker of the SA-14 allows it to home in on the exhaust plume of jet engines, turboprop and helicopter gas turbine engines. The enhanced seeker allowed the SA-14 to be fired against a target from much broader angles, as well as defeating certain countermeasure techniques such as exhaust shrouds. In addition, optical filtration was added to the seeker to reduce vulnerability to typical IRCM flares. Because of the small warhead size of the SA-7, the warhead of the SA-14 was nearly doubled in weight. To prevent the heavier warhead from degrading missile performance, the guidance electronics were reduced in weight and a new solid-propellant motor was fitted so that aerodynamic performance was actually increased. The SA-14 has a maximum range of 4500 meters, and a maximum altitude of 3000 meters. 


SA-15 GAUNTLET Low to Medium Altitude Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-15 Tor SAM system is considered by the former Soviets to be capable of engaging not only aircraft and helicopters but also RPVs, precision-guided weapons and various types of guided missile. The chassis of the vehicle is almost identical to that used for the 2S6 self-propelled hybrid air defense system and is based on the GM-569 tracked vehicle. The three man crew comprises the vehicle commander, system operator and vehicle driver. All of whom are seated at the front of the vehicle with the large box-like unmanned turret in the center and the engine compartment at the rear. The driver is located on the left side of the vehicle front and has a windscreen to his immediate front which if required may be covered by a hatch cover that is hinged at the top. This arrangement is similar to that used previously on the Kub (SA-6) and Shilka (ZSU-23-4) vehicles. The other crew members are seated to his rear with the system PPI console on the right and the launch controls to the left. The vehicle suspension consists of six dual rubber tired roadwheels either side with the idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and three return rollers. An auxiliary gas turbine is fitted which powers a 75 kW generator allowing the main diesel engine to be shut down when the system is deployed so as to conserve fuel. On top of the turret rear is the surveillance radar antenna assembly which is swung through 90 to the horizontal position for extended traveling purposes. The 3D pulse Doppler electronically beam steered radar operates in the E/F-band and provides the range, azimuth, elevation and automatic threat evaluation data on up to 48 targets for the associated digital fire control computer processing system. Automatic track initiation on the 10 targets assessed as the most dangerous can be performed. These are then categorized and prioritized in order of threat by the computer for the engagement. All the operator has to do is to reconfirm the choice of the highest priority target choice and track this selected target before pressing the 'fire' button. The maximum radar range quoted is 25000 m but the fast reaction time - five to eight seconds which includes the fire control computer assigning the target priority - suggests that it is probably greater than this. At the front of the turret is the phased-array pulse Doppler G/H-band tracking radar. The beams of which are also electronically steered. This is capable of tracking two targets simultaneously, traveling at speeds of up to 700 km/h in any kind of weather and at any time of day or night irrespective of threat ECM operations. The antenna assembly can also be folded down for traveling purposes. Mounted on the top left of this radar is a small vertical pointing antenna which is believed to serve in initially gathering the missile after launch before being handed over to the main tracking/guidance system. Lower down on the right side of the tracking radar is an autonomous automatic TV tracking system with a range of 20000 m that complements the tracking radar and enables the system to operate in battlefield clutter and heavy ECM environment. Target radar surveillance is carried out on the move but the vehicle would normally come to a halt for missile launch. Although it is an autonomous system it can be interfaced into an air defense network as it carries a specialist coded data link for such purposes. The former Soviets also state that its design is flexible enough to accommodate other manufacturers command and control equipment if a customer so wished. The missile area comprises a box-like container that extends down below the level of the hull top and which carries two groups of four ready to fire missiles in the vertical position. Each missile is in its own sealed container-launcher box and requires no maintenance. Reloading of the system is performed by a specialist transportation/loader vehicle. The single stage solid propellant missile has a maximum speed of 850 m/s and is fitted with a 15 kg HE-fragmentation warhead that is detonated by a proximity fusing system. Provisional missile details are length 3.5 m, diameter 0.735 m and launch weight 170 kg. On firing a cold launch ejection system propels the missile upwards to a height of 18-20 m where thruster jets ignite and turn the weapon onto the target bearing. The main sustainer rocket motor then cuts and the missile is command guided to the intercept point where the proximity fuse is triggered. Effective range limits are from 1500 to 12000 m with target altitude limits being between 10 and 6000 m. The maximum maneuvering load factor limit on the weapon is 30 g. The Tor is not amphibious although it is airportable. An NBC system is fitted as standard as is a built-in training system. 


SA-16 GIMLET Man-portable Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-16 GIMLET (Igla-1 9K310) is a further development from the SA-7 & SA-14 series of manportable SAMs. The SA-16, which actually an improved version of the SA-18 GROUSE, which was introduced in 1983, three years before the SA-16. The SA-16 has been improved over the SA-18 through the addition of a new seeker and modified launcher nose cover. Whereas the 9M39 missile is fitted with an aerodynamic spike on the nose, the 9M310 missile of the SA-16 has the spike replaced with an aerodynamic cone which is held in place with a wire tripod. The protective covers of the new seekers differ: on the SA-18 it is conical shaped cover, while on the SA-16 it is tubular with a prominent lip at the forward edge. The 9M313 missile of the SA-16 employs an IR guidance system using proportional convergence logic, and an improved two-color seeker, presumably IR and UV). The seeker is sensitive enough to home in on airframe radiation, and the two-color sensitivity is designed to minimize vulnerability to flares. The SA-16 has a maximum range of 5000 meters and a maximum altitude of 3500 meters.


SA-X-17 GRIZZLY Low to Medium Altitude Surface-to-air Missile System

Russia is currently developing a new mobile SAM system designated SA-X-17 in the US designation series to augment and eventually replace the SA-11 GADFLY. Few other details are available at present, except it uses the same launch vehicle chassis and has a similar configuration to the SA-11 GADFLY. The surveillance radar has the NATO code name 'Snow Drift' and is also carried on the modified GM-569 tracked vehicle chassis. 


SA-18 GROUSE Man-portable Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-18 GROUSE (Igla 9K38) is a further development from the SA-7 & SA-14 series of manportable SAMs. The SA-18 resembles the earlier SA-14 in many details such as the use of a similar thermal battery/gas bottle. However the missile itself an entirely new design with substantially improved range and speed. Like the SA-14, the SA-18 has a 2 kg. high-explosive warhead. However, the new seeker and aerodynamic improvements extend its effective range and its higher speed enables it to be used against faster targets. The 9M39 missile of the SA-18 employs an IR guidance system using proportional convergence logic. The new seeker offers better protection against electro-optical jammers; the probability of kill against an unprotected fighter is estimated at 30-48%, and the use of IRCM jammers only degrades this to 24-30%. The 2 kg. warhead is fitted with a contact and grazing fuse. The SA-18 has a maximum range of 5200 meters and a maximum altitude of 3500 meters. 


SA-19 GRISOM Surface-to-air Missile System

The SA-19 GRISOM (9M111) is a radar command guided, two-stage surface to air missile mounted on the 2S6 Integrated Air Defense System (See 2S6 in AAA section). The 2S6 is fitted with two banks of four missiles, in blocks of two which can be elevated vertically independent of each other. The SA-19 can engage aerial targets from 15 to 3500 meters in altitude, and from 2400 to 8000 meters in slant range, with the target having a maximum speed of 500 m/s. The missile has a HE fragmentation warhead which is actuated by a proximity fuse if the missile passes within 5 m of the target. The SA-19 is supported by the HOT SHOT radar system. The HOT SHOT is comprised of a surveillance radar with a maximum range of 18 km, and a tracking radar with a maximum range of 13 km. The method of engagement is semi-automatic, radar to command line-of-sight, with the gunner tracking the target using the roof-mounted stabilized optical sight. The SA-19 is claimed to have a kill probability of 0.65. 



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