END NOTES

[1] Headquarters, Department of Army message, Subject: "Army Adoption of Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC)," May 6, 1983.

[2] Lead Sheet #15187, Interview with Army Research Laboratory research chemist, February 25, 1998, p 1-2.

[3] Lead Sheet #15187, Interview with Army Research Laboratory research chemist, August 9, 1999, p. 3.

[4] Lead Sheet #15187, Interview with Army Research Laboratory research chemist, August 9, 1999, p. 3.

[5] Lead Sheet #15187, Interview with Army Research Laboratory research chemist, August 9, 1999, p. 4.

[6] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations," Technical Guide 144, August 24, 1987, p. 2-3, 2-5, 3-1, 5-1, 7-1.

[7] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations," Technical Guide 144, August 24, 1987, p. 5-1.

[8] Memorandum for All Medical Facility/SGPB from Detachment 1, HSC/OEMI, Subject: "Consultative Letter, AL-OE-BR-CL-1998-0105, 1,6-Hexamethylene Diisocyanate Exposures During Polyurethane Spay Painting Operations," August 28, 1999, p. 1-2.

[9] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations," Technical Guide 144, August 24, 1987, p. 7-1.

[10] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations," Technical Guide 144, August 24, 1987, p. 2-4.

[11] Lead Sheet #14228, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, January 21, 1998, p. 2.; Lead Sheet #14237, Interview with 3rd Armored Calvery Regiment painter, January 22, 1998, p.1; Lead Sheet #14254, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, January 26, 1998, p. 2; Lead Sheet #14369, Interview with CARC paint site inspector, February 6, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #14978, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter February 10, 1998, p. 1.

[12] Gerr, F. and R. Letz, "Organic Solvents," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 1094-1095.

[13] Memorandum from US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency for Headquarters, Department of Army, Subject: "Health Effects Anticipated Following Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Paint," August 23, 1993, p. 2.

[14] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations," Technical Guide 144, August 24, 1987, p. 2-1.

[15] Lead Sheet #20618, Interview with 22nd Support Command safety officer, December 8, 1998, p. 3.

[16] Memorandum from US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency for Headquarters, Department of Army, Subject: "Health Effects Anticipated Following Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Paint," August 23, 1993, p. 2.

[17] Memorandum from US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency for Headquarters, Department of Army, Subject: "Health Effects Anticipated Following Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Paint," August 23, 1993, p. 2.

[18] US Environmental Protection Agency, Technology Transfer Network, Hexamethylene-1-6-Diisocyanate. www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/hlthef/hexa-dii.html, (as of December 14, 1998).

[19] Memorandum from US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency for Headquarters, Department of Army, Subject: "Health Effects Anticipated Following Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Paint," August 23, 1993, p. 2.

[20] Banks, D.E., "Respiratory Effects of Isocyanates," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 542.

[21] Banks, D.E., "Respiratory Effects of Isocyanates," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 541-542.

[22] Banks, D.E., "Respiratory Effects of Isocyanates," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 542.

[23] Memorandum from US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency for Headquarters, Department of Army, Subject: "Health Effects Anticipated Following Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Paint," August 23, 1993, p. 2.

[24] Bernstein, D.I., "Allergic Reactions to Workplace Allergens," Journal of American Medical Association, December 10, 1997, p. 1907-1913.

[25] Banks, D.E., "Respiratory Effects of Isocyanates," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 540-542.

[26] Chan-Yeung, M. and J.L. Malo, "Occupational Asthma," The New England Journal of Medicine, July 13, 1995, Volume 333, No. 2, p. 107-112.

[27] "Preventing Asthma and Death from Diisocyanate Exposure," DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 96-111, 1996, www.cdc.gov/niosh/asthma.html (as of November 12, 1999).

[28] Banks, D.E., "Respiratory Effects of Isocyanates," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 540-542.

[29] Banks, D.E., "Respiratory Effects of Isocyanates," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 541-542.

[30] Chan-Yeung, M. and J.L. Malo, "Occupational Asthma," The New England Journal of Medicine, July 13, 1995, Volume 333, No. 2, p. 107-112.

[31] Chan-Yeung, M. and J.L. Malo, "Occupational Asthma," The New England Journal of Medicine, July 13, 1995, Volume 333, No. 2, p. 107-112.

[32] Banks, D.E., "Respiratory Effects of Isocyanates," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 547-548.

[33] "Preventing Asthma and Death from Diisocyanate Exposure," DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 96-111, 1996, www.cdc.gov/niosh/asthma.html (as of November 12, 1999).

[34] Cormier, Y., "Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 457-465.

[35] Gerr, F and R. Letz, "Organic Solvents," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 1094.

[36] Memorandum from US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency for Headquarters, Department of Army, Subject: "Health Effects Anticipated Following Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Paint," August 23, 1993, p. 2-3.

[37] Gerr, F. and R. Letz, "Organic Solvents," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 1091, 1096.

[38] Memorandum from US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency for Headquarters, Department of Army, Subject: "Health Effects Anticipated Following Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Paint," August 23, 1993, p. 3-4.

[39] Gerr, F. and R. Letz, "Organic Solvents," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 1096.

[40] Memorandum from US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency for Headquarters, Department of Army, Subject: "Health Effects Anticipated Following Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Paint," August 23, 1993, p. 3.

[41] Gerr, F. and R. Letz, "Organic Solvents," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 1091, 1094.

[42] Gerr, F. and R. Letz, "Organic Solvents," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 1097.

[43] Gerr, F. and R. Letz, "Organic Solvents," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 1098.

[44] Gerr, F. and R. Letz, "Organic Solvents," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 1095.

[45] Gerr, F. and R. Letz, "Organic Solvents," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 1102.

[46] Annex B (Port Operations) to 1st ID(F) Operation Desert Shield/Storm AAR Background Papers, p. B-11.

[47] Annex B (Port Operations) to 1st ID(F) Operation Desert Shield/Storm AAR Background Papers, p. B-12.

[48] Lead Sheet #15359, Interview with 593rd Area Support Group commanding officer, March 6, 1998, p. 1.

[49] Annex B (Port Operations) to 1st ID(F) Operation Desert Shield/Storm AAR Background Papers, p. B-12.

[50] Annex B (Port Operations) to 1st ID(F) Operation Desert Shield/Storm AAR Background Papers, p. B-12, B-13.

[51] Annex B (Port Operations) to 1st ID(F) Operation Desert Shield/Storm AAR Background Papers, p. B-13.

[52] Annex B (Port Operations) to 1st ID(F) Operation Desert Shield/Storm AAR Background Papers, p. B-13.

[53] "VII Corps CARC Paint Operation," Appendix 19 to Annex A to 1st ID (F) Operation Desert Shield/Storm AAR of VII Corps Debarkation and Onward Movement, p. A-19-1.

[54] "Painting Instructions for Army Materiel," US Army Technical Manual (TM) 43-0139, July 27, 1988, p. 3-1.

[55] "Painting Instructions for Army Materiel," US Army Technical Manual (TM) 43-0139, July 27, 1988.

[56] MG Dyer, Travis N., Point Paper from United States Army Director of Personnel, "Issue: Safety During Desert Shield Mobilization," November 19, 1990.

[57] CINCUSAREUR message, Subject: "CARC Touch-up/Spot Painting Policy," October 15, 1990.

[58] Memorandum from Headquarters Department of the Army, 3d Brigade, 1st Infantry Division (Forward), through Commander, 176th Maintenance Battalion, for Commander 325th Maintenance Company, Subject: "VII Corps CARC Painting Policy," December 27, 1990.

[59] Army Materiel Command message, Subject: "Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Update," February 6, 1991.

[60] Annex J (Service Support) to 3AD Operations Order 90-10, p. J-9.

[61] Lead Sheet #18049, Interview with 593rd Area Support Group senior supply sergeant, July 15, 1998, p. 1.

[62] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Operation Desert Shield / Desert Storm, History of Participation by the US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, 1992, p. 2-19.

[63] Lead Sheet #18141, Interview with site manager for the Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, July 16, 1998, p. 1.

[64] Lead Sheet #18143, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Damman paint site, July 16, 1998, p. 1.

[65] Lead Sheet #18305, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, July 27, 1998, p. 1.

[66] Lead Sheet #18301, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, July 27, 1998, p. 1.

[67] Lead Sheet #18143, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Damman paint site, July 16, 1998, p. 1.

[68] Lead Sheet #18141, Interview with site manager for the Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, July 16, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #18146, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, July 16, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #18305, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, July 27, 1998, p. 1.

[69] Lead Sheet #18143, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Damman paint site, July 16, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #18146, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, July 16, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #18305, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, July 27, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #18301, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, July 27, 1998, p. 1.

[70] Lead Sheet #26418, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, March 29, 2000, p. 2, Lead Sheet # 26328, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, April 7, 2000, p. 1-2, Lead Sheet #18143, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, April 11, 2000, p. 2-3, Lead Sheet #18301, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, May 4, 2000, p. 1.

[71] Lead Sheet #27246, Interview with US Army Occupational Medicine Staff Officer, June 28, 2000.

[72] Lead Sheet #17526, Interview with 900th General Supply Maintenance Company painter, January 12, 1999, p.1.

[73] Lead Sheet #18141, Interview with site manager for the Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, July 16, 1998, p. 1.

[74] Lead Sheet #18259, Interview with 900th General Supply Maintenance Company maintenance warrant officer, July 22, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet 18328, Interview with DoD civilian painter at Anniston Ad Dammam paint site, July 28, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #18051, Interview with 900th General Supply Maintenance Company shop officer, July 15, 1998, p. 1.

[75] Lead Sheet #15190, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, February 25, 1998, p. 2.

[76] Lead Sheet #15359, Interview with 593rd Area Support Group commanding officer, March 6, 1998, p. 1.

[77] Lead Sheet #15120, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company commanding officer, February 17, 1998, p. 1.

[78] Lead Sheet #15853, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, April 6, 1998, p. 1.

[79] "Logistical Concerns Requiring Assistance."

[80] "Paint Operations at Al Jubayl," equipment tally.

[81] Lead Sheet #15853, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, April 6, 1998, p. 1.

[82] Lead Sheet #14254, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, January 26, 1998, p. 1-2.

[83] Photo taken by US Army Support Group safety officer.

[84] 325th Maintenance Company, Daily Report - Al Jabail Port Paint Facility, December 21, 1990 to January 26, 1991, website: http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassimages/army/19960116/011696_117_8_001.html

[85] 325th Maintenance Company, Daily Report - Al Jabail Port Paint Facility, December 21, 1990 to January 26, 1991, website: http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassimages/army/19960116/011696_117_8_001.html

[86] Lead Sheet #14346, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company mechanic, February 4, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #15190, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, February 25, 1998, p. 2; Lead Sheet #14228, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, January 21, 1998, p. 1-2; Lead Sheet #14978, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, February 10, 1998, p. 1.

[87] Lead Sheet #15853, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, April 6, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #14254, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, January 26, 1998, p.1; Lead Sheet #14346, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company mechanic, February 4, 19998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #14228, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, January 21, 1998, p. 1-2; Lead Sheet #14978, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, February 10, 1998, p. 1.

[88] Lead Sheet #15853, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, April 6, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #14978, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, February 10, 1998, p. 1.

[89] Lead Sheet #24332, Interview with air compressor manufacturer representative, July 14, 1999, p. 1.

[90] Lead Sheet #15853, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, April 6, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #14346, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company mechanic, February 4, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #14978, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, February 10, 1998, p. 1.; Lead Sheet #21577, Notes from watching video of paint site inspections taken by 22nd Support Command safety officer, February 5, 1999, p. 1.

[91] Photo taken by 325th Maintenance Company commanding officer.

[92] Tape TVT 3-40, "(CARC) Chemical Agent Resistant Coating," and Tape TVT 3-29, "CARC/CPP (Chemical Agent Resistant Coating/Camouflage Pattern Painting," were in existence during Desert Shield/Storm.

[93] Lead Sheet #14346, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company mechanic, February 4, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #14978, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, February 10, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #15190, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, February 25, 1998, p. 1.

[94] Lead Sheet #14346, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company mechanic, February 4, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #19487, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, October 16, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #14228, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, January 21, 1998, p. 2; Lead Sheet #14978, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, February 10, 1998, p. 2; Lead Sheet #15190, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, February 25, 1998, p. 2; Lead Sheet #14254, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, January 26, 1998, p. 2; Lead Sheet #15853, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, April 6, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #21081, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, January 13, 1999, p. 2.

[95] Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a condition in which lung tissue is highly sensitive and easily inflamed by certain stressors. This is a type of chronic pneumonia caused by a chemical such as HDI or certain microorganisms.

[96] Lead Sheet. #15853, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, April 6, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #15190, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, February 25, 1998, p. 2.

[97] VII Corps message, Subject: "Commander's SITREP #55," March 12, 1991.

[98] VII Corps safety officer, "Jubail Paint Site Safety Information."

[99] VII Corps safety officer, "Jubail Paint Site Concept of Operations."

[100] VII Corps Redeployment LNO Coordinator Notes #6, SUPCOM Evening Brief, 23 MAR 91, March 25, 1991.

[101] VII Corps Redeployment LNO Coordinator Notes #24, SUPCOM Evening Stand-up, 12 Apr 91, April 13, 1991.

[102] Lead Sheet #21577, Notes from watching video of paint site inspections taken by 22nd Support Command safety officer, February 5, 1999, p. 1.

[103] VII Corps LNO to 22D SUPCOM Notes #35, SUPCOM Morning Stand-up 23 APR 91, April 24, 1991.

[104] Journal of a 22nd Support Command safety officer, p. 11.

[105] Journal of a 22nd Support Command safety officer, p. 13.

[106] Lead Sheet #21577, Notes from watching video of paint site inspections taken by 22nd Support Command safety officer, February 5, 1999, p. 1.

[107] Journal of a 22nd Support Command safety officer, p. 8.

[108] Journal of a 22nd Support Command safety officer, p. 13-14.

[109] Lead Sheet #15853, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, April 6, 1998, p. 1-2; Lead Sheet #15190, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, February 25, 1998, p. 1.

[110] Photo taken by US Army Support Group safety officer.

[111] Lead Sheet #19604, Map provided by US Army Support Group safety officer, February 10, 1999.

[112] Army Materiel Command/US Army Support Group (Provisional), Operation Desert Storm Saudi Arabia, safety officer, 15 January 1991 - 21 July 1991, briefing slides.

[113] Lead Sheet #19604, Interview with US Army Support Group safety officer, October 22, 1998, p. 3.

[114] Lead Sheet #21577, Notes from watching video of paint site inspections taken by 22nd Support Command safety officer, February 5, 1999, p. 1-2.

[115] Photo taken by US Army Support Group safety officer.

[116] Lead Sheet #20618, Interview with 22nd Support Command safety officer, February 16, 1999, p. 2.

[117] Photo taken by US Army Support Group safety officer.

[118] Memorandum from USASG-F to Commander, 22nd Support Command (TAA), Subject: "Kuwait Passes for Official Duty," June 21, 1991.

[119] Lead Sheet #19604, Interview with US Army Support Group safety officer, October 22, 1998, p. 2.

[120] "E-10 CARC Painting Operations."

[121] Lead Sheet #19604, Map provided by US Army Support Group safety officer, February 10, 1999.

[122] Lead Sheet #14234, Interview with 3rd Armored Calvary Regiment painter, January 22, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #14237, Interview with 3rd Armored Calvary Regiment painter, January 22, 1998, p. 1-2.

[123] Lead Sheet #15548, Interview with 24th Infantry Division painter, March 24, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #15881, Interview with 89th Military Police Brigade painter, April 7, 1998, p. 1.

[124] ARCENT message, Subject: "Occupational Medicine/Industrial Hygiene Support to DESCOM," October 29, 1990, p. 1.

[125] Lead Sheet #14270, Interview with 105th Medical Detachment environmental science officer, January 28, 1998, p. 1.

[126] Memorandum from 12th Medical Detachment for Commander, 176th Maintenance Battalion, Subject: "Industrial Hygiene and Safety Evaluation of 'CARC' Painting Operations," December 20, 1990, p. 2.

[127] Memorandum for Record from Safety Director, Subject: "Hazard report, CARC painting operation," December 15, 1990.

[128] Lead Sheet #14379, Interview with 12th Medical Detachment industrial hygienist, February 9, 1998, p. 1; Lead Sheet #14369, Interview with CARC paint site inspector, February 6, 1998, p. 1.

[129] Memorandum for Record from SUPCOM, Surgeon/CDR, SUPCOM Med Grp (Prov), Subject: "CARC Painting," p. 1, website: http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassdocs/army/19961108/110596_aug96_decls1_0002.html (as of January, 21, 2000)

[130] Lead Sheet #14390, Interview with 12th Medical Detachment occupational medicine physician, July 8, 1999, p. 2.

[131] Memorandum for Record from SUPCOM, Surgeon/CDR, SUPCOM Med Grp (Prov), Subject: "CARC Painting," p. 1, website: http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassdocs/army/19961108/110596_aug96_decls1_0002.html (as of January, 21, 2000)

[132] Memorandum from 12th Medical Detachment, for Commander, 176th Maintenance Battalion, Subject: "Industrial Hygiene and Safety Evaluation of 'CARC' Painting Operation," 20 December 1990, p. 1.

[133] Memorandum from 12th Medical Detachment for Commander, 176th Maintenance Battalion, Subject: "Industrial Hygiene and Safety Evaluation of 'CARC' Painting Operations," December 20, 1990, p. 2.

[134] Memorandum from 12th Medical Detachment for Commander, 176th Maintenance Battalion, Subject: "Industrial Hygiene and Safety Evaluation of 'CARC' Painting Operations," December 20, 1990, p. 2-3.

[135] Memorandum Record from Department of the Army, Army Materiel Command, United States Army Support Group, Subject: "Paint Operations in SWA," April 5, 1991, p. 1.

[136] Memorandum Record from Department of the Army, Army Materiel Command, United States Army Support Group, Subject: "Paint Operations in SWA," April 5, 1991, p. 3.

[137] Memorandum Record from Department of the Army, Army Materiel Command, United States Army Support Group, Subject: "Paint Operations in SWA," April 5, 1991, p. 1-2.

[138] Lead Sheet #20572, Interview with DoD civilian safety manager for VII Corps in theater, December 3, 1998, p. 1-2.

[139] Memorandum from Headquarters 22nd SUPCOM, for Director, 22nd SUPCOM Safety, Subject: "Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Paint Operations, Ports of Dammam and Jubayl," April 28, 1991, p. 1-2.

[140] Memorandum from Army Materiel Command for 22nd SUPCOM Safety Officer, Subject: "Paint Operations," April 20, 1991, p. 1.

[141] Memorandum from Headquarters 22nd SUPCOM, For Director, 22nd SUPCOM Safety, Subject: "Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Paint Operations, Ports of Dammam and Jubayl," April 28, 1991, p. 3-4.

[142] Memorandum for Record, from USASG Safety Officer, Subject: "Paint Operations," April 28, 1991, p. 1-2.

[143] Memorandum from USASG Safety Officer for 22nd SUPCOM Safety Officer, Subject: "Paint Operations," April 20, 1991, p. 1.

[144] Memorandum from Department of the Army, Medical Group (Provisional) Preventive Medicine Team to Commander, SUPCOM Medical Group, Subject: Potential Medical Hazards at the Damman Port CARC Paint Site, May 26, 1991, p. 2.

[145] Memorandum from Department of the Army Preventive Medicine Team, through Commander, SUPCOM Medical Group, Subject: "Assessment of the Al Jubayl CARC Paint Site," June 12, 1991, p. 1-2.

[146] Headquarters Marine Corps message, Subject: "Requirements for Temporary Desert Camouflage Paint," August 28, 1990.

[147] Lead Sheet #17979, Interview with Marine Corps System Command engineer, July 13, 1998, p. 1.

[148] Lead Sheet #18072, Interview with USMC Master Gunnery Sergeant, July 15, 1998, p. 1.

[149] Lead Sheet #18072, Interview with USMC Master Gunnery Sergeant, July 15, 1998, p. 1.

[150] Lead Sheet #18072, Interview with USMC Master Gunnery Sergeant, July 15, 1998, p. 1.

[151] Lead Sheet #18072, Interview with USMC Master Gunnery Sergeant, July 15, 1998, p. 1.

[152] Lead Sheet #15187, Interview with Army Research Laboratory research chemist, March 8, 1999, p. 2; and Lead Sheet #27367, Interview of Navy industrial hygiene personnel, July 24, 2000.

[153] Lead Sheet #22086, Interview with Air Force bioenvironmental engineer in-theater, March 3, 1999, p. 1; and Lead Sheet #27367, Interview of Navy industrial hygiene personnel, July 24, 2000.

[154] "Standing Operating Procedures (SOP) CARC Painting Operations."

[155] "Standing Operating Procedures (SOP) CARC Painting Operations, revised copy, May 7, 1991."

[156] Memorandum from Department of the Army Medical Group (Provisional) Preventative Medicine Team to Commander, Medical Group (Provisional), Subject: "Physical Examinations and Medical Monitoring of Troops Conducting CARC Painting Operations," May 28, 1991, p. 1.

[157] A discussion of the requirements found in "Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations," Technical Guide 144, is found in this report in Section III. Description of CARC and Tab E., Occupational Safety and Health Guidance.

[158] Memorandum from Department of the Army Medical Group (Provisional) Preventive Medicine Team to Commander, Medical Group (Provisional), Subject: "Physical Examinations and Medical Monitoring of Troops Conducting CARC Painting Operations," May 28, 1991, p. 1-2.

[159] Memorandum from Headquarters, VII Corps Redeployment Command, to Commander, VII Corps Redeployment Command, Subject: "Health and Safety Recommendations for CARC Painting Sites," June 4, 1991.

[160] Lead Sheet #15654, Interview with Occupational medicine physician at Fort Stewart, March 31, 1998, p. 1.

[161] Lead Sheet #15190, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, January 4, 1999, p. 2; Lead Sheet #21081, Interview with 325th Maintenance Company painter, January 13, 1999, p. 2.

[162] Letter from Charles T. Canady, Congress of the United States, House of Representatives, April 27, 1993.

[163] Letter from Charles T. Canady, Congress of the United States, House of Representatives, May 28, 1993.

[164] Letter from Lt. Gen. John B. Conaway, National Guard Bureau, May 20, 1993.

[165] Memorandum from the National Guard Bureau for Acting Chief, National Guard Bureau, Subject: "NGB-IG Assessment of Patient Administration and Health Care for National Guard Desert Storm/Shield Veterans-Action Memorandum," June 30, 1994.

[166] Testimony of Maj. Gen. Robert F. Ensslin, Jr. before the Subcommittee on Oversight Investigations of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, House of Representatives, June 9, 1993, p. 282.

[167] Final Report of the Presidential Advisory Committee (PAC) on Gulf War Veteran's Illnesses, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, December 1996, Executive Summary p.1. website: http://www.gwvi.ncr.gov/exsumm-f.html (as of January 21, 1999)

[168] Testimony of Mr. Tim Ivories and Mr. William Carpenter before the Presidential Advisory Committee (PAC), October 9, 1996, website http://www.gwvi.ncr.gov/1009gulf.html (as of January 21, 1999).

[169] The DOD's Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program (CCEP) is available to all Gulf War veterans currently on active duty, active in the Reserves or National Guard, or retired from the military. The program begins with an in-depth medical evaluation.

[170] Current National Guardmembers in the 325th Maintenance Company must first register in the CCEP and complete Phase I before a line of duty (LOD) investigation can begin. LOD investigations are then managed by the Headquarters of the Florida National Guard and are sent to the National Guard Bureau for determination of line of duty status.

[171] Lead Sheet #21390, Interview with Florida National Guard personnel representative, February 2, 1999, p. 1-2.

[172] The Department of Veterans Affairs Persian Gulf War Registry is for Gulf War veterans not currently on active duty. It begins with a free, complete physical examination with basic laboratory studies.

[173] Lead Sheet #21390, Interview with Florida National Guard personnel representative, February 2, 1999, p. 2.

[174] Lead Sheet #14336, Interview with Executive Director of the Florida Department of Veterans Affairs, February 11, 1998, p. 1.

[175] Banks, D.E., "Respiratory Effects of Isocyanates," Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 1998, p. 542.

[176] Memorandum from the Joint Chiefs of Staff to Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, et. al., Subject: "Deployment Health Surveillance and Readiness," December 4, 1998, p. 3.

[177] DD Form 2697, Report of Medical Assessment, November 1995.

[178] Military Specification, Coating, Aliphatic Polyurethane, Chemical Agent Resistant, MIL-C-46168D(ME), May 21, 1987, p. 2.

[179] Military Specification, Coating, Aliphatic Polyurethane, Chemical Agent Resistant, MIL-C-53039A(ME), November 23, 1988, p. 9.

[180] Material safety data sheet taken off a paint can in theater, 686 Tan, Type II, MIL-C-46168D; Lead Sheet #21577, Notes from watching video of paint site inspections taken by 22nd Support Command safety officer, February 5, 1999, p. 1.

[181] Lead Sheet # 15187, Interview with Army Research Laboratory research chemist, August 9, 1999, p. 4.

[182] US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, June 1994, p. 160.

[183] US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, June 1994, p. 160.

[184] US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, June 1994, p. x.

[185] 1999 TLVs and BEIs: Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices, Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1999, p. 3.

[186] 1999 TLVs and BEIs Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices, Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1999, p. 41.

[187] 1999 TLVs and BEIs: Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices, Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1999, p. 4.

[188] Memorandum for All Medical Facility/SGPB from Detachment 1, HSC/OEMI, Subject: "Consultative Letter, AL-OE-BR-CL-1998-0105, 1,6-Hexamethylene Diisocyanate Exposures During Polyurethane Spay Painting Operations," August 28, 1999, p. 1-2.

[189] Bayer Corporation, Hexamethylene Diisocyante Based Polyisocyantes Health and Safety Information, Pittsburgh, PA: Bayer Corporation, 1999, p. 2.

[190] Department of Defense Instruction, 6055.1, "DoD Safety and Occupational Health (SOH) Program," August 19, 1998, p. 2.

[191] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations," Technical Guide 144, August 24, 1987, p. 2-1. Note: A personal sample is taken with a monitoring device on the person to measure the amount of an individual's exposure.

[192] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations," Technical Guide 144, August 24, 1987, p. 7-3.

[193] US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, "OSHA Standards Interpretation and Compliance Letters," March 3, 1986. Website http://www.osha-slc.gov/OshDoc/Interp_data/I19860303.html.(as of January 21, 1999)

[194] OSHA has subsequently revised its respiratory guideline to allow for the use of air purifying respirators in polyurethane (CARC) painting operations. OSHA Instruction CPL 2-0.120, Inspection Procedures for the Respiratory Protection Standard of September 25, 1998, established a new policy such that "where an effective change schedule is implemented, air purifying gas and vapor respirators may be used for hazardous chemicals, including those with few or no warning properties." This policy, however, was not in effect during the time period addressed in this report.

[195] Letter from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), August 7, 1990. 0271.

[196] Headquarters, Department of the Army, Technical Manual 55-1500-345-23, "Painting and Marking of Army Aircraft," June 12, 1986, p. 8-16.

[197] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations," Technical Guide 144, August 24, 1987, p. 2-3.

[198] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations," Technical Guide 144, August 24, 1987, p. 2-5.

[199] US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Hazard Communication Standards, 29 CFR 1910.1200 (b)(3)(ii).

[200] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations," Technical Guide 144, August 24, 1987, p. 4-1.

[201] Industrial Safety and Installation Support, "Chemical Agent Resistant Coating, A Safety Support Pamphlet," Ft. Rucker, Alabama, January 9, 1988.

[202] US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Hazard Communication Standards, 29 CFR 1910.1200.

[203] US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, "Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations," Technical Guide 144, August 24, 1987, p. 4-1.

[204] Department of Defense, Instruction 6050.5, "DoD Hazard Communication Program," May 6, 1996, p. 1-6.

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