February 13, 2001

Case Narrative Close-Out Reports are summaries of discontinued investigations into possible exposures of US servicemembers to chemical or biological warfare agents during the Gulf War. The Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military deployments began this investigation of biological warfare agents in response to concerns Iraq may have used biological warfare agents against Coalition forces and agents may be a cause of unexplained illnesses seen in Gulf War veterans.


The Presidential Special Oversight Board requested that we provide a summary of this investigation, which we did at a public hearing on September 16, 1999. Based on that summary, the Board concluded that information obtained to date in this investigation, the emerging results, and the anticipated outcomes from continued investigation are not likely to improve our understanding of any unexplained illnesses. Consequently, the Presidential Special Oversight Board recommended terminating further investigation. In addition, to bring the investigation to closure, the Board requested that we complete a close-out report to present the data, documentary evidence, and findings compiled during the course of the investigation.

The initial close-out report published October 26, 2000, complied with the Board's recommendation.  Since that time we have recieved approval to reference additional documentation and this report adds footnotes to link that material not cleared for release at the time of original publication.  However, we were aware of the newly footnoted information during the investigation and we considered it when developing the findings and conclusions, which have not changed in this report.  If you believe you have additional information related to biological warfare during the Gulf War, please contact my office by calling:




Dale A. Vesser
Acting Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses,
Medical Readiness, and Military Deployments
Department of Defense

2001011-0000001 Ver. 1.1




II .  A.  Methodology
II .  B.  Iraq’s Biological Threat
II.   C.  Postwar Findings
II .  D.  US Biological Warfare Defense
I I.  E.  Gulf War Biological Warfare Medical Preparedness
II.   F.  Detecting, Evaluating and Reporting Biological Agents
II .  A.  1.  513th Military Intelligence Brigade
I I.  A.  2.  Joint Captured Materiel Exploitation Center
II .  A.  3.  US Army Technical Escort Unit
II .  A.  4.  9th Chemical Detachment
II .  A.  5.  Theater Area Medical Laboratories
II .  A.  6.  US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)
I I.  G.  Desert Shield and Desert Storm Biological Warfare Agent Detection Capabilities
I I.  H.  Biological Sampling
I I.  A.  1.  The Plan and the Process
II.   A.  2.  Biological Warfare Sample Transportation
II.   A.  3.  Biological Warfare Air Sampling
II .  A.  4.  Presidential Advisory Committee Report
II.   A.  5.  Dead Animal Reports
II .  A.  6.  Biological Warfare Sampling Summary
II .  A.  6.  Biological Warfare Sampling Summary


I I.  A.  General
I I.  B.  Lessons Learned
I I.  A.  1.  Chain of Custody
II.   A.  2.  Biological Warfare Agent Sample Packaging
II.   A.  3.  Biological Warfare Air Sampling False Positive Test Results
II.   A.  4.  Biological Warfare Agent Detection Capability
II.   A.  3.  Biological Warfare Agent Sample False Positive Test Results

TAB A – Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary

TAB B – Bibliography

TAB C – Anthrax

TAB D – Botulism

TAB E – Trichothecene Mycotoxin (T-2)

TAB F – Aflatoxin

TAB G – Plague

TAB H – List of New Information


| First Page | Prev Page | Next Page |